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Tea-horse Ancient Road 茶马古道双语散文

散文 时间:2018-08-21 我要投稿
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  “茶马古道”是中国西南大地上一条进行对外经济文化交流,传播中国古代文明的国际通道,是西南的“丝绸之路”。

  For thousands of years, only humans and horses treaded the mountains of Southwest China as they followed an ancient pathway through the Chinese hinterlands and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  Along the unpaved and rugged pathway that was formed, commodities like tea, salt and sugar flowed into Tibet. Meanwhile, horses, cows, furs, musk and other local products made their way to the outside world. The road was called the tea-horse ancient road, and it stretched across more than 4,000 kilometers, mainly through Southwest China’s Sichuan and Yunnan provinces and the Tibetan Autonomous Region.

  The ancient commercial passage first appeared during the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It also experienced the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties - or a period of more than 1,200 years. The road promoted exchanges in culture and religion, and saw ethnic migration that closely resembled what was experienced on the well-known Silk Road.

  Along the ancient road lived more than 20 minorities. Concentrations of beautiful and mysterious natural landscapes and traditional cultures developed in various sites, including Dali old city, Lijiang old city, Shangrila, Yarlung Zangbo River Grand Canyon, Potala Palace. The road features temples, rock paintings, post houses, ancient bridges and plank roads. It is also home to many national minorities and their dances and folk customs.

  Two major routes

  Roughly speak- ing, there were two main routes:

  Route One: Begins in Ya’an in Sichuan Province to Qamdo via Luding, Kangd- ing, Litang and Batang before mer- ging with Route One into Lhasa.

  Route Two: Begins in Xishuangbanna and Simao, home of Pu’er tea (via Dali, Lijiang, Zhongdian, Benzilan and Deqeng) in Yunnan Province to Zugong, Bamda, Rewoqe, Zayu or Qamdo, Lholung, Benba, Jiali, Gongbogyangda, Lhasa, Gyangze and Yadong in Tibet, before continuing into Myanmar, Nepal and India.

  Tens of thousands of traveling horses and yaks created a definite pathway with their hooves on the once-indiscernible road. Today, although even such traces of the ancient road are fading away, its cultural and historic values remain.

  The Eternal Road

  No matter what is happening in the world, three types of things in the tea-horse ancient road will continue to exist: the beautiful and rustic nature scene, inviolable religion and simple Tibetan people.

  This ancient road features the imposing scenery and a soul-stirring quiet. Some- times, things seem static and the sur- rounding mountains stand silent. There is a kind of beauty in the desolation that may easily lead people to believe they are experienced a prehistoric place when they visit.

  The distant mountains reveal strong and exquisite ridges while rain and snow melt together, rushing down from the mountains and rapidly gathering before flowing into innumerable rivers.

  If the mountains could form a skeleton of Tibet, the resulting rivers and streams might form their vessels, which pour vigor and vitality into the plateau.

  Besides mountain and rivers, there are also many peculiar stones, incomparably marvelous clouds, as well as unusual light illuminating the sky as one travels the road.

  Walking the tea-horse ancient road might allow one to see reverent pilgrims heading to holy city Lhasa. They walk slowly along the rugged road, some of them even crawling, butting heads as they move toward their sacred destination. Their arms and legs fester - foreheads dripping blood - but with eyes still full of light, granted comfort from their beliefs.

  When you walk the road of Tibet in a cloudless dawn or under the glow of a sunset, the sights can stir the senses and seem an awakening experience.

  Caravans on the Way

  From ancient times, mabang (caravans) have been the main vehicles used for transportation.

  Year after year, thousands of cara- vans traveled the rough road while the hoof beats and the sounds of clear bells broke the tranquility of the canyon. The road opened a vital pathway for economics and trade with the outside world.

  In World War II, the tea-horse ancient road became the only transportation line for the southwest of China. Caravans trans- ported large quantities of international as- sistance from India, which greatly supported China’s Sino-Japanese War.

  After the accomplishment of the Dian- Zang Highway and the Chengdu-Lhasa Highway, automobiles replaced the cara- vans, and the tea-horse ancient road be- came a part of history. But in the outlying mountainous area of Yunnan Province, caravans remain the main source of trans- portation today.

  The tea-horse ancient road - from ancient times through its present history - contributes greatly to the national spirit of the Chinese people. It represents continuity as an eternal monument in the history of China.

  Culture Treaded by Feet

  The tea- horse ancient road is hard and dange- rous, yet the natural land- scape along it stimulates people’s un- derlying courage, strength and endurance while helping to provide meaning to life.

  In addition, Tibetan Buddhism has provided widespread doctrine on the tea-horse ancient road, further promoting economic dialogue, cultural exchanges, along with unity and friendship between the nationalities of Naxi, Bai, Tibetan and other ethnic groups.

  Some reverent artists have drawn and carved massive images of Buddha, Bodhisattva, eminent monks, God animals, conch, and other heavenly bodies on rocks along the roadside. These have increased a kind of sacred dignity for the ancient roadway.

  With thousands of years of history behind it, the tea-horse ancient road - like a big corridor connecting various nationa- lities - has developed the local economy, stimulated the commodity markets in co- mmunities, and promoted the develop- ment of border trade as well. It has pro- moted agriculture and the raising of animals while at the same time providing a source of enjoyment for local art, religion, culture, and ideologies. It has helped many in the nation obtain unprecedented prosperity and development.

  Important Towns along the Tea- horse Ancient Road

  Pu’er: hometown of Pu’er tea with a long history.

  Xiaguan (Dali): a main processing and collection center for tea.

  Jianchuan: bazaar on the tea and horse ancient road.

  Shaxi Sideng: the only surviving bazaar.

  Lijiang: the most famous distribution center on the road.

  Deqin: The last road station within the boundaries of Yunnan.

  几千年来,在中国内地与青藏高原的群山之间,只有人类和他们的马匹循着这条古道穿梭于西南部的群山峻岭之间。

  顺着这条行人走出来的崎岖不平的道路,一些商品像茶叶、盐和糖流入到了西藏。与此同时,马、牛、皮毛、麝香等当地产品也走向了外面的世界。这条道被称为茶马古道,绵延纵横4,000多公里,主要途径中国西南部的四川省和云南省,以及西藏自治区。

  在唐朝(618-907)首次出现了古代的商业通道,宋、元、明、清年间也出现了商业通道,时间长达1,200多年。这条古道促进了地区和文化交流,也像著名的“丝绸之路”一样促进了民族之间的融合。

  这条古道两边,生活着20多个少数民族。不同的地方有着各自美丽而神奇的自然风景和传统文化,比如:大理和丽江古城,香格里拉,雅鲁藏布江大峡谷和布达拉宫。古道的两旁有庙宇、岩石壁画、驿站、古桥和木板路,还有少数民族舞蹈和民族服装。

  两大路线

  大致而言,有两大路线:

  路线一:从四川雅安出发到昌都,然后途经泸定、康定、理塘和巴塘,最后到达拉萨。

  路线二:从西双版纳和普洱茶的思茅出发,途经云南大理、丽江、中甸、奔子栏和德钦,然后到达西藏Zugong,Bamda,Rewoqe,Zayu or Qamdo,Lholung,Benba,Jiali, Gong- bogyangda,拉萨,Gyangze 和Yadong,之后到达缅甸、尼泊尔和印度。

  成千上万匹马和牦牛用它们的蹄子走出了一条清晰可见的道路,时至今天,虽然这条古道的踪迹都消失了,但它的文化和历史价值仍然存在。

  永恒的道路

  不管这个世界会发生什么变化,但是这条茶马古道的三样东西却会依然存在:美丽原始的自然风景,神圣的宗教,和淳朴的藏族人民。

  茶马古道风景迷人,幽静僻远。有时,万物皆静,四面的群山寂静无语,这种荒凉寂静之美很容易把游人带进一个空灵的远古地带。

  雨雪在一起融化,远山就呈现出一派刚强与精致的山脊。雪水从山上冲到山下,又迅速汇聚在一起,然后流入千万条河流之内。

  如果把群山看作是西藏的骨架的话,那么那些河流与小溪便是西藏的血管,而河流又给平原带来了能量和生机。

  除此之外,这里还有大量的奇石异云,有时候,游客在路上还会遇到罕见的闪电照亮整个天空的壮景。

  日落时分,天空万里无云,太阳的余辉闪耀,你行走在西藏的一条大路上,此时,风景无限,触动你的灵感,这颇是一次让人为之一惊的体验。

  行走在茶马古道上,你或许能够看到一些去往圣城拉萨的虔诚朝圣者,他们在崎岖不平的路上行走,步行缓慢,有的甚至屈膝爬行,磕着头前往圣地。即使他们的双腿与胳膊化脓--额头滴血--但他们的眼神依然闪烁着光芒,是信仰给了他们安慰。

  途中的大篷车

  自古以来,大篷车就一直是运输的主要工具。

  每年都有无数辆大篷车行走在崎岖不平的道路上,蹄子当当地响,清脆的铃声在山谷里回荡,这条古道开辟了一条重要的对外经贸之路。

  二战时期,茶马古道成为中国西南部唯一一条交通路线。当时,印度大力支持中国的抗日战争,因此大篷车也装载着大量印度给中国的国际援助物资。

  行走完滇藏公路和成都到拉萨的公路后,接下来就要乘汽车了。茶马古道已成为历史的一部分了,但是至今,在云南的偏远山区,大篷车仍然是交通运输的重要工具。

  时至今日,茶马古道已为中华民族的整个民族精神做出了巨大贡献,而且它仍将是中国历史上的永恒纪念碑。

  文化的足迹

  茶马古道这条古路难走而且充满危险,可是它美丽的自然风景却刺激人们鼓足勇气,使出力量,拼足耐力去认识和领悟生命的意义。

  此外,茶马古道也促进了藏传佛教的广泛传播,促进了经济和文化的交流,也加强了纳西族、白族、藏族和其他少数民族之间的友谊和团结。

  一些受人崇敬的艺术家曾在路边的岩壁上画下和刻下了大量佛像、菩萨像,僧侣和神仙像,以及贝壳与天体的图像。这些遗迹都增加了这条古道的神圣色彩,以及人们对这里的崇敬。

  几千年来,随着历史的发展,茶马古道--就像一个连结着各个少数民族的大走廊,使当地的经济得到了发展,刺激了民族间商品市场的发展,也促进了边境贸易的发展。它促进了农业的发展和饲养动物的产生,同时,还为当地的艺术、宗教、文化和思想意识提供了一个发展空间,它更加促进了民族在多个领域内的史无前例的发展与繁荣。

  茶马古道周边的重要城镇

  普洱:历史悠久的普洱茶的故乡。

  下关(大理):茶叶的主要加工与收集中心。

  剑川:茶马古道上的一个集市。

  沙溪寺登:茶马古道上唯一幸存的古集市。

  丽江:茶马古道上最有名的集散地。

  德钦:云南边界内的最后一个路站。

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