发布时间:2016-6-5 编辑:互联网 手机版



1、hair, a hair, hairs

hair指人或动物的“头发,毛发”。hair可指人或动物的全部“头发,毛发”,强调整体。作此解时,它是不可数名词。充当主语,用单数形式。如: What lovely hair the girl has!那女孩的头发真美! My mother's black hair was going gray.我妈妈的黑发正在变白。

a hair是指“一根头发或毛发”,此时的hair是可数名词的单数形式。如: I found a long golden hair on the tablecloth.我在桌布上发现一根金发。 The little boy has got a white hair on his head.这个小男孩的头上有一根白发。

hairs指“多根头发或毛发”,它是可数名词的复数形式,其前可有数词或表示数量的a few, several, many等词修饰。如: The cat has left its hairs all over my clothes.那只猫粘得我衣服上都是猫毛。 My aunt has a few gray hairs.我的婶婶已有几根白发。 

2、hand on, on hand

hand on是一动副型短语动词,一般用作及物动词,表示“传下去;转交”等意思。例如:Everyone in class should read this, so when you have finished, please hand it on.班上每个人都应把这看一下,所以你看完后,请往下传。That family trait is handed on from father to son.那种家风是父子相传的。Would you hand on this telegram to your friend?你把这份电报转交给你的朋友好吗?

on hand是一习语,在句中作表语或状语,意为“现有在手头的;准备好了的”和“在近处,在手边;临近”等,含有即将来临的意味。例如:I am sorry I have no cash on hand.对不起,我手头没有现金。Always have your dictionary on hand when you study.学习时要随时把词典放在手边。 Soon school will end and vacation will be on hand.学期即将结束,假期就要来临。 

3、happen, take place这两者都表示“发生”。

happen为“发生,(偶然)发生”,较多地用来指某个事件的突然发生,强调其偶然性,主语往往是事件,事故等一类的词汇。它也可后接动词不定式,及用于It happens that...结构,表示“碰巧”的意义。如: The road accident happened under my eyes.我亲眼目睹了这场交通事故。 I never know what's going to happen next.我永远不知道将会发生什么。 My cousin happened not to be at home.我的表兄碰巧不在家。 How does it happen that you know her?你怎么会碰巧认识她的?

take place为“发生,举行”,常指有计划安排的事情的发生与进行,不含偶然的意味。如: When does the popular concert take place? 这场流行音乐会几时开始? The talk is planned to take place in the Great Hall of the People on December 9. 这次会谈将定于十二月九日在人民大会堂举行。 The conversation with the principal of our school took place several hours ago. 这个由我校校长参加的会议是在几个小时前举行的。 Great changes have taken place in our country since 1980. 自1980年以来,我们的国家发生了翻天覆地的变化。

在不强调偶然性与计划性的场合,两者有时可以通用。如: What has happened / taken place?发生了什么? The May Fourth Movement happened / took place in 1919.五四运动发生在1919年。 

4、hanged, hung

动词hang的过去式和过去分词分别有两种形式,即hanged, hanged和hung, hung,但由于它们的意义不同,所以易引起混淆。hanged是动词hang作“绞杀,吊死”讲时的过去式或过去分词。例如:The judge sentenced the criminal to be hanged.法官判处罪犯绞刑。She hanged herself.她上吊死了。

hung是动词hang作 悬、挂的意思时的过去时或过去分词。例如:The hall is hung with red flags.大厅里挂着红旗。I hung the picture yesterday.我昨天把画挂了起来。 

5、happen, happen to

happen是不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,其过去分词也不能用作形容词。它常指某事情,事故,故事等“发生”,主语往往为表示事物的名词或代词。此外,happen后亦可接动词不定式和that从句,表示“恰好,碰巧”的意思。后接动词不定式时,主语必须是表示人的名词或代词;其后若接that从句,常用it作形式主语,that从句作真正主语的结构形式,即It happens that... 。例如:Many changes have happened in our country since liberation.解放以来,我国发生了很多变化。We happened to be only two miles short of the plant.当时我们恰好离厂只有两英里。It happened that she was there.恰好她在那儿。

happen to是一习语,意为“临到,发生于”,其中to是介词,后接表示人或事物的名词或代词,主语通常是anything, something, what等。例如:If anything happens to him, let me know.如果他发生意外,就通知我。What happened to the machine?机器出了什么毛病? 

6、harm, hurt, injure, wound这一组动词均表示“伤害,损害”。

harm表示引起对身体,物质或精神上的严重损害,常指伤害人的肉体,损坏东西以及损害健康,品 质,事业等。如: Hard drinking will harm your stomach.过量饮酒会伤胃。 I don't believe those fairy tales will harm our students. 我认为那些神话故事不会对我们的学生有害处。 There was a fire in the street, but the theatre wasn't harmed at all. 街上起火了,但是那家戏院完好无损。

hurt常指思想感情方面的伤害,含有引起极大苦恼之意。当指肉体上的伤害时,强调疼痛的剧烈程 度。hurt的过去分词只能作表语,不能作定语,而本组内的其他动词则无此限制。如: It hurts me when you talk like that.你那样同我说话,我很心痛。 My head still hurts.我的头仍然很疼。 She was hurt to think of her not being invited to the party. 一想到没被邀请去参加那个聚会,她就感到受到了伤害。

injure着重指人的容貌、内部器官、生理机能的损害,常与harm通用,但更强调伤势的严重。它也可指对人精神的伤害。如: You will injure yourself by smoking too much.过度抽烟对你的身体有害。 The boy injured his shoulder while playing football.在踢足球时,他弄伤了自己的肩部。 She was so injured in her pride that she rushed out into the dark street. 她的骄傲受到了伤害,所以她冲到了漆黑的大街上.

wound专指外力对身体造成的伤害,尤其指战争和灾害中的受伤,一般指外伤,不指内伤。它也可指感情,荣誉方面的创伤。如: The bullet wounded the soldier in the head.子弹击伤了这个战士的头部。 Fifty PLA men were wounded in the sea battle.在这场海战中,五十位人民解放军受了伤。 What you have said has seriously wounded the feeling of Maggie. 你说的话伤透了麦琪的感情。 

7、hard, hardly这两个词词义相近,不少人常常将hardly误作hard的副词。其实hard本身也可用作副词,并且它们的用法和意义完全不同。

hard既可作形容词,意为“勤奋的;困难的”等;亦可作副词,表示“拼命地,努力地”的意思。例如:This is a hard work.这是一项艰苦的工作。He worked hard when he was young.他年轻时,工作努力。

hardly只用作副词,意思是“几乎不,简直不”,它与seldom, scarcely等词一样,本身含有否定的意义,故在句中不能另加否定词。此外,hardly 位于句首时,该句采用倒装语序。例如:I hardly know what to say.我简直不知道说什么好。What he said was hardly true.他说的话不会是真的。Hardly can I endure this weather.我简直受不了这天气。

8、have a word with, have words with

have a word with表示“和……谈谈,说几句话”的意思。这种谈话往往是不够充分详尽的,或者说是很随便的。例如:I'll have a word with you this afternoon.今天下午我要和你说几句。I had a chance to have a word with him when we met accidentally at the drugstore.上次我们在药店偶然相遇的时候,我有机会和他交谈了一下。

have words with用于贬义,表示“和……发生口角,与...争吵”的意思,相当于quarrel with 。例如:They had words with their neighbours over some trifles.他们因一些琐事与邻居发生口角。They've had words with each other, I hear.听说,他们发生过口角。 

9、have, there be

have表示某人或某事物“拥有,具有,含有某人,某事物或某性质”,强调占有。如: The poor fellow had neither friends nor money.那个穷家伙既没有朋友也没有钱。 This sentence has two different meanings.这句话有两个不同的意思。 These two short stories have much in common.这两个小故事有很多相似之处。

there be表示某处“有”某人或某事物,强调存在。此结构中的there本身没有“在那里”的意思,需要 表达该意义时,句末须另加there。there be句型为倒装结构,谓语动词要和后面的主语保持人称与数上 的一致。当有几个并列的主语时,一般应以最靠近谓语动词的主语为准。此结构中还可以用助动词及情 态动词。如: There are exceptions to every rule.每个规则都有例外。 There was an apple tree and four pear trees in their courtyard. 他们的大庭院里有一棵苹果树和四棵梨树。 There used to be a chemical works there.那儿以前有个化工厂。 There can't be more than five or six hotels in this town. 在这个镇上,不可能有超过五六家宾馆。 Let's get through the work quickly. There seems to be little time left. 我们赶快把工作完成,时间好像所剩无几。 

10、have sth. done, have sb. do, have sb. doing

have sth. done主要有两种用法和意义:1. 表示“使(让,要,叫)某事被做”,强调主语意志,过去分词done所表示的动作由他人完成。2. 以主语为重点,意味着对主语不利的事,常有“遭受”的含意。此时,done所表示的动作执行者不明。在使用中,done由其他实义动作执行者代替。例如:I have my photograph taken.?