第24单元重点、难点

发布时间:2016-4-24 编辑:互联网 手机版

罗玉南

重点词语用法

1.expect的用法 expect[iks'pekt]vt.盼望;料想。其后通常跟不定式、带不定式的复合宾语,还可以接名词、代词以及宾语从句等。例如:

①Both of us expected to see you in Beijing. 我们两个盼望在北京见到你。

②No doubt you are the gentleman whom he was expecting. 你一定就是他所期待的那位先生了。

③We had expected everything to be better. 我们曾经希望事事顺利。

④I did not expect to meet you here. 我没有料到会在这儿见到你。

⑤ Do you expect me to stay after that? 在那之后你希望我呆下去吗?

⑥I expected that you would finish the work in time. 我想到你会及时完成这项工作的。

2.congratulate 1)congratulate是动词,作“祝贺、庆祝”解时,以被祝贺的人作宾语。若要说出祝贺事项,常用on。

①I congratulated my friend on her birthday. 我祝贺我的朋友生日快乐。

②I congratulated them on what they had achieved. 我因他们取得的巨大成就向他们祝贺。

③The scientist is to be congratulated for his valuable contribution to the advancement of scientific knowledge in the countryside. 那位科学家为促进科学知识在农村的普及作出了有益的贡献,应受到祝贺。

2)congratulate oneself的意思是“庆幸,感到幸运”。

①I congratulated myself on having escaped unhurt. 我因自己幸免于难而感到幸运。

②Well, congratulate yourself that you resisted the temptation. 你应该为你自己未受诱惑而庆幸。

3)名词常用复数,congratulations。

①Convey my congratulations to him.代我向他祝贺。

②We offered our congratulations to him on his success. 我们祝贺他成功。

③Please accept my congratulations on your birthday. 请接受我对你的生日祝贺。

④It's your birthday today? Congratulations! 今天是你的生日?祝贺你了。

3.introduce 1)用作及物动词,表示“正式介绍”,向某人介绍用介词to。

①Allow me to introduce you to my friend.允许我将你介绍给我的朋友。

②They introduced themselves to each other. 他们互相介绍。

2)用作及物动词,表示“使认识,使注意”,介词to后加被认识了解的东西。

①A visit to the museum introduced the students to modern art. 参观博物馆使得学生对现代艺术有所了解。

②It was my younger brother who introduced me to jazz. 是我弟弟使我了解了爵士音乐。

4.determine 1)作及物动词,表示“决定”的意思,后接不定式。

①We determined to do this at any cost.我们不惜任何代价,决心做这件事。

2)determine sb.to do sth.意为“使某人决定做某事”。

①The circumstances determined him to give up the study of medicine. 这些情况使他决定放弃学医。

3)determine sb.against sth.意为“使某人决定不做某事”。

①The news determined us against further delay.这消息使我们决心不再拖延。

4)determine和be determined后都可加从句。

①He has determined that nothing(should)prevent him from going. 他决定不顾一切障碍而去。

②We were determined that it(should)be done. 我们下决心要做成这件事。

③Have you determined where you are going to spend the holidays? 你已决定在何处度假了吗?

④He determined that his son(should)have a good education. 他决定让他儿子接受良好教育。

5.run一词的几种用法 1)run用作及物动词,表示“管理”、“经营”、“办”。如:

①My aunt runs a hotel by the seaside.我姑妈在海边开了一家旅馆。

②Who runs his house for him since his wife is ill? 由于他妻子生病了,谁来替他操持家务呢?

③They have the right to run their own affairs. 他们有权管理自己的事务。

④The manager is too young to have much experience in running the hotel. 经理年纪太轻,没有多少管理酒店的经验。 ⑤Are you the man who runs this shop? 你就是开这家商店的人吗?

⑥You should study how to run meetings successfully. 你们应该研究怎样把会议开好。

2)run可以作系动词用,意为“变得”,后面接形容词。如:

①The river was beginning to run dry.河水开始干涸起来。

②His blood ran cold at the news.听到这消息,他血都凉了。

③I asked Mary to lend me fifty yuan because I was running short of money.

我向玛丽借五十元因为我手头没钱了。

④You mustn't let the children run wild and do what they like.

你不能让孩子们不受约束,爱干什么就干什么。

6.mix 1)作不及物动词,意思是“相混合,相混淆”。

①Oil and water will not mix.水和油不相溶。

②He mixes well in any company.他和什么人都合得来。

2)mix…with…意为“把……和……混合起来,结合起来,混淆”。

①mix water with wine 将水搀入酒

②mix black with white 混淆黑白

3)mix up意为“搅匀,拌和”,或“搞混,混淆”。

①mix up flour and water 把面粉和水搅匀

②mix up the salad dressing 把色拉调料调好

③You have mixed up all my pencils.你把我们的铅笔全混了。

④His explanation mixed me up even more. 他的解释使我更糊涂了。

⑤I always mix Mary up with Susan.我总是分不清Mary和Susan.

4)be mixed up意为“搞乱了,弄糊涂了”。

①Your ideas are all mixed up.你的想法全乱了。

②We got mixed up in our directions.我们搞不清方向了。

③He felt very mixed up about life.他觉得弄不清人生真谛。

5)be/get mixed up in 意为“卷入、介入、参与”。

① I don't want to get mixed up in the affair. 我不想介入那件事。

②I wonder how he got mixed up in the case. 我不明白他怎么卷入那个案件。

7.owe的用法

1)作及物动词用,意为“欠(债)”。

①They asked him to pay what he owed them. 他们要他偿还欠他们的债务。

②I owe $ 20 to the tailor.我欠裁缝二十美元。

③He still owes for the goods he bought last month. 他仍然欠上个月买东西的帐。

④I have paid all that was owed. 我已经把所有欠债都还清了。

2)owe还有“应把…归功于…”之意。如:

①I owe it to you that I'm still alive. 我现在还活着,应该感谢你。

②We owe a great deal to our parents and teacher. 我们深受父母及师长之恩。

③He owes his success to hard work and practice.

他的成功是努力工作和实践的结果。

④If I have improved in any way, I owe it all to my teacher.

如果说我有一些进步,这应该全部归功于我的老师。

3)owe亦可解释为“应当给予……”。如:

①You owe me an apology.你得向我道歉。

②I owe you many thanks. 我非常感谢你。

③Mr Wang owes himself a holiday.王先生应该好好休个假。

④We should do the duty which we owe to our country.

我们应对国家尽我们应尽的义务。

重点词组用法

1.be tired of(=be no longer interested in) 意为“对……厌烦”。例如:

①Are you tired of living in the city? 你在城里住的厌烦了吗?

②The old couple are not tired of living in the country. 那对老夫妇住在乡下不感到厌烦。

③They are tired of the same food for supper every evening. 每天晚餐吃同样的食物,他们感到厌烦了。

④Don't make so much noise, I am tired of so much of it. 不要制造如此多的噪音,我讨厌这么多的噪音。

2.drop in的用法 drop in意为“顺便来访;到……家来”,常用于非正式文体中。表示“来访某家”时,用“drop in at…”,表示“来访某人”时,用“drop in on…”。例如:

①Please drop in at my office when you happen to be free.

如果你碰巧有空的话,请到我的办公室来。

②I'd like to drop in at Mr Sun on the way to school.

在去学校的路上,我想顺道拜访一下孙先生。

③Xiao Wang often dropped in when he worked at the college.

小王在大学工作时经常到我家来。

④I just dropped in to see if he was at home studying English.

我只是顺便来看看他是否在家学英语。

3.help…out 意为“帮助(做某事;克服困难等)”。例如:

①Nobody helped me out when I lost my job. 在我失业时没有人帮助我。

②The students help out in the factory after school.

同学们放学后到那家工厂帮忙。

③Kate fell ill last week, many of her friends came to help out.

凯特上周生病了,她的很多朋友都来帮忙。

④He often helps us out when we have been in trouble.

当我们有困难时他经常帮我们的忙。

4.“Let's drink to…” 是祝酒的用语,介词to后跟名词,表示“为(某事)干杯”的意思。例如:

①Let's drink to the success of Mr John. 为约翰先生的成功干杯!

②Let's drink to your further achievements. 咱们为你更大的成就干杯!

③Now, let's drink to the friendship between both of us. 现在,为我们两人的友谊,干杯!

【注意】表示“我提议为……干杯”可以使用 “I should like to propose a toast to…”。例如:

①I should like to propose a toast to the health of all the friends present here!

我提议,为在座的朋友们的健康,干杯!

②I'd like to propose a toast to the further development of our country.

我提议,为我国的进一步发展,干杯!

5.at the moment, for the moment, for a moment和in a moment

▲at the moment 用于现在时中,意为“此刻”,用于过去时态中意为“那时”。如:

①I am busy at the moment.我此刻很忙。

②Our manager is having an interview with a newspaper reporter at the moment.

我们经理此刻正在接受报社记者采访。

③At the moment he was busy preparing his lessons. 那时,他正忙于准备功课。

④My parents are getting in the wheat at the moment. 我父母亲正在收割小麦。

⑤At the moment Tom was playing hide-and-seek with other boys.

当时,汤姆正与其他孩子玩捉迷藏。

▲for the moment作“暂时”、“目前”解释。如:

①Stop discussing for the moment, please.请暂停讨论。

②Filled for the moment with extraordinary strength, he raised himself completely.

他一下子使出了非凡的力气,自己完全站了起来。

③We have to stay in the inn for the moment as the hotels around are full.

由于周围的旅馆都已满了我们暂时只能待在小客栈里。

▲for a moment 意为“片刻”、“一会儿”。如:

①For a moment I thought of playing truant. 我一时起了逃学的念头。

②I'd like to speak to you for a moment. 我想和你谈一会。

③I had to think for a moment before I remembered his name.

我想了一会儿才记起他的名字。

▲in a moment 意为“立即”、“立刻”。如:

①You go first. I'll come in a moment.你先走我马上就来。

②It was done in a moment.一会儿它便完成了。

③Don't go away, the bus will start in a moment. 别走开,汽车马上就要开了。

6.What a shame! (真遗憾!真不像话!)用来表示“遗憾;愤懑”。可以单独使用,也可以后跟that-clause或不定式短语。例如:

①Li Lei didn't do his homework yesterday.----What a shame!

李雷昨天没做作业。一真不像话!

②What a shame that I failed in the mid-term examinations!

我期中考试不及格,真是遗憾!

③What a shame to spare him so much time!为他浪费那么多的时间,真不值!。

7.thanks to与because of的用法区别 1)because of指原因,意为“因为”,用以指出理由。

①We stayed at home, this is because of rain.我们呆在家里,因为下雨。

②Tom's absence was because of sickness.汤姆因病缺席。

2)thanks to既可表达正面意义(亏得,多亏,幸亏),又可表达讽刺意义(近乎反语“感谢”)。

①Thanks to your help we were successful. 由于你的帮助,我们成功了。(正面)

②It was thanks to your stupidity that we lost the game. 正是由于你的愚蠢,我们比赛才输了。

8.come round/around的用法 1)作“(非正式)来访”、“串门”解释。

①I'd like to come round to your place one of these days.

我很愿意哪一天到你们这儿玩玩。

②How kind of you to come round to see us.

你到这儿来看望我们,真是太好了。

③I'm afraid I can't come round to your place tonight, for I have to finish my work first.

我今晚恐怕不能到你家去,因为我得先完成工作。

④I've been so sorry that you couldn't come round this week.

这星期你不能到这儿来,我非常遗憾。

2)come round可作“又来到”、“再现”解释,主要指隔一段时间会来一次的事情,如节假日、季节等。如: ①The summer holidays have come round again.暑假又到了。

②National Day will soon come round.国庆节即将到来。

③The time for autumn harvest soon came round. 不久又是秋收季节了。

④When Saturday came round, I went to see my brother. 到了星期六,我就去看我兄弟。

3)come round 还有“转变看法”、“转而同意”、“回心转意”之意。如:

①If we talk to him, I'm sure he will come round to our point of view.

如果我们和他谈谈,我肯定他会转而同意我们的观点。

②She is now against our ideas, but soon she'll come round.

她现在反对我们的意见,但很快她会改变看法的。

③Jack came round when he knew the fact. 杰克知道了事实真相后,就改变了原来的看法。

④Don't worry about Mother. She will come round in the end.

别担心母亲的态度,她最终会改变的。

4)come round亦可作“恢复知觉、健康”等解释。如:

①After this rain, my flowers will come round again.

过了这场雨后,我的花儿就会缓过来了。

②They watched by her bed, waiting for her to come round.

他们守在她床边,等待她苏醒过来。

常用句型结构

1.I wish you every success in the future. “I wish you+名词”用来表示“祝愿”,常用于正式场合。如:

①I wish you success.祝你成功。

②I wish you a happy birthday.祝你生日快乐。另外,“I wish you + adj.”也表示“祝愿”。如:

①I wish you lucky.祝你走运。

②I wish you safe in the journey.祝你一路平安。表示祝愿的形式,常见的有:

a)用原形动词。如: Long live China.中国万岁!

b)用May+动词原形构成。如:

May you be happy all your life.祝你一生幸福。

c)用“I hope + that clause”句型。如:

I hope(that) you'll get well soon.祝你早日康复。

I hope(that)you have a good time.祝你玩得高兴。

<注>“I wish + that clause”句型不是表示祝愿,而是表示“但愿”、“希望”之意。从句谓语动词常用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反的情况。如:

I wish (that)you had read the book.真希望你已读过这本书了(事实是没读过)。

I wish I could fly to the moon in a spaceship one day.

但愿有朝一日我能坐宇宙飞船到月亮上去(事实上不可能)。

2.I insist on telling him how great you were. 我一定要告诉他你是多么了不起。

“insist on sth./doing sth.”结构,其意思为“一定要……;坚持要求”。例:

①I insist on an early reply.我坚决要求早日答复。

②She insisted on seeing the manager as soon as possible. 她坚持要尽快见到经理。

③He insisted on lending me the money I needed. 他一定要把我需用的钱借给我。当insist作及物动词时,后跟that----clause, 从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气,即用“should+动词原形”,其中should常可省略。例:

①I insisted that he(should) go.我一定要他去。

②He insisted that the work should be finished at the end of this month.

他坚决要求这项工作在月底完成。

语法基础知识附加疑问句

1)陈述部分是nobody, no one, none, everyone, everybody, some one, somebody, anyone, anybody作主语,附加句中主语用they。

①Nobody has opened the cupboard during my absence, have they?

【注】若nobody, no one指“世界上没有任何人”这一概念时须用he。

②No one likes to be given short change, does he?

2)陈述部分主语为everything时,附加主语用it。

①Everything has gone wrong, hasn't it?

3)us, this, that, these, those作主语的句子,附加主语用it或they。

①This/That is a desk, isn't it?

②These/Those are pencils, aren't they?

4)陈述部分主语是不定式、动名词、词组、从句,附加主语均用it。

①Fishing is interesting, isn't it?

②To master English is not easy, is it?

5)there be结构中,附加主语用there。

①There is some salt left, isn't there?

6)陈述部分主语为one,正式场合用one,非正式场合也可用you,美语中还用he。

①One can't work all the time, can one?

7)复合主句中主语为第一人称,谓语为think, believe, expect时,附加主语与从句一致。

①I don't believe she is a liar, is she?

8)一般现在时中,陈述主语为第一人称单数,附加谓语be用are.

①I am strong, aren't I?

9)陈述部分为must be表示对现在猜测,附加主语用be的相应形式。

①He must be an engineer, isn't he?

10)若为否定猜测can't,则用can。

①He can't be a lawyer, can he?

11)陈述部分为must have done依情况用did, has, have。

①She must have attended the meeting yesterday, didn't she?

12)陈述部分为can't have done, 依情况用did, has, have。

①The workers can't have finished their work yet, have they?

13)注意以Let's, Let us和Let me开头的结构。

①Let's go and have a look at it, shall we?

②Let us know when you get married, will you?

③Let me do it, will you?

14)have作实义动词时,附加部分最好用do, did, does。

①Jack has two sisters, doesn't he?

15)have sth. done出现在陈述部分,后用did。

①They had the door repaired, didn't they?

16)出现need时,要与陈述部分保持一致。

①I need to buy a dictionary, don't I?

17)ought to出现时,用oughtn't或shouldn't。

①I ought to complain, shouldn't(oughtn't) I ?

18)used to出现时,用did或used。

①There used to be some trees, usedn't (didn't) there?

19)Let开头的句子,前后都为肯定。

①Let her do it, will you?

20)由否定前缀构成的动词不视为否定。

①He is unmarried, isn't he?

21)nothing, hardly, barely, scarcely, seldom, little, few出现在句中视为否定。

①She hardly gets up late, does she?