Diana Laugenberg: How to learn From mistakes
讲者分享了其多年从教中所认识到的一从错误中学习的观念“允许孩子失败，把失败视为学习的一部分”，以及从教育实践中学到的三件事：“1.体验学习的过程 2.倾听学生的声音 3.接纳错误的失败。”
I have been teaching for a long time, and in doing so have acquired a body of knowledge aboutkids and learning that I really wish more people would understand about the potential ofstudents. In 1931, my grandmother -- bottom left for you guys over here -- graduated from theeighth grade. She went to school to get the information because that's where the informationlived. It was in the books; it was inside the teacher's head; and she needed to go there to getthe information, because that's how you learned. Fast-forward a generation: this is the one-roomschoolhouse, Oak Grove, where my father went to a one-room schoolhouse. And he again hadto travel to the school to get the information from the teacher, stored it in the only portablememory he has, which is inside his own head, and take it with him, because that is howinformation was being transported from teacher to student and then used in the world. When Iwas a kid, we had a set of encyclopedias at my house. It was purchased the year I was born,and it was extraordinary, because I did not have to wait to go to the library to get to theinformation. The information was inside my house and it was awesome. This was different thaneither generation had experienced before, and it changed the way I interacted with informationeven at just a small level. But the information was closer to me. I could get access to it.
In the time that passes between when I was a kid in high school and when I started teaching,we really see the advent of the Internet. Right about the time that the Internet gets going as aneducational tool, I take off from Wisconsin and move to Kansas, small town Kansas, where Ihad an opportunity to teach in a lovely, small-town, rural Kansas school district, where I wasteaching my favorite subject, American government. My first year -- super gung-ho -- going toteach American government, loved the political system. Kids in the 12th grade: not exactly allthat enthusiastic about the American government system. Year two: learned a few things -- hadto change my tactic. And I put in front of them an authentic experience that allowed them tolearn for themselves. I didn't tell them what to do or how to do it. I posed a problem in front ofthem, which was to put on an election forum for their own community.
They produced flyers. They called offices. They checked schedules. They were meeting withsecretaries. They produced an election forum booklet for the entire town to learn more abouttheir candidates. They invited everyone into the school for an evening of conversation aboutgovernment and politics and whether or not the streets were done well, and really had thisrobust experiential learning. The older teachers -- more experienced -- looked at me and went,
"Oh, there she is. That's so cute. She's trying to get that done." (Laughter)
"She doesn't knowwhat she's in for." But I knew that the kids would show up, and I believed it, and I told themevery week what I expected out of them. And that night, all 90 kids -- dressed appropriately,doing their job, owning it. I had to just sit and watch. It was theirs. It was experiential. It wasauthentic. It meant something to them. And they will step up.
From Kansas, I moved on to lovely Arizona, where I taught in Flagstaff for a number of years,this time with middle school students. Luckily, I didn't have to teach them American government.Could teach them the more exciting topic of geography. Again,
"thrilled" to learn. But what wasinteresting about this position I found myself in in Arizona, was I had this really extraordinarilyeclectic group of kids to work with in a truly public school, and we got to have these momentswhere we would get these opportunities. And one opportunity was we got to go and meet PaulRusesabagina, which is the gentleman that the movie "Hotel Rwanda" is based after. And hewas going to speak at the high school next door to us. We could walk there. We didn't evenhave to pay for the buses. There was no expense cost. Perfect field trip.
The problem then becomes how do you take seventh- and eighth-graders to a talk aboutgenocide and deal with the subject in a way that is responsible and respectful, and they knowwhat to do with it. And so we chose to look at Paul Rusesabagina as an example of a gentlemanwho singularly used his life to do something positive. I then challenged the kids to identifysomeone in their own life, or in their own story, or in their own world, that they could identify thathad done a similar thing. I asked them to produce a little movie about it. It's the first time we'ddone this. Nobody really knew how to make these little movies on the computer, but they wereinto it. And I asked them to put their own voice over it. It was the most awesome moment ofrevelation that when you ask kids to use their own voice and ask them to speak for themselves,what they're willing to share. The last question of the assignment is: how do you plan to useyour life to positively impact other peopleThe things that kids will say when you ask them andtake the time to listen is extraordinary.
Fast-forward to Pennsylvania, where I find myself today. I teach at the Science LeadershipAcademy, which is a partnership school between the Franklin Institute and the school district ofPhiladelphia. We are a nine through 12 public school, but we do school quite differently. I movedthere primarily to be part of a learning environment that validated the way that I knew that kidslearned, and that really wanted to investigate what was possible when you are willing to let go ofsome of the paradigms of the past, of information scarcity when my grandmother was in schooland when my father was in school and even when I was in school, and to a moment when wehave information surplus. So what do you do when the information is all around youWhy doyou have kids come to school if they no longer have to come there to get the information
In Philadelphia we have a one-to-one laptop program, so the kids are bringing in laptops withthem everyday, taking them home, getting access to information. And here's the thing that youneed to get comfortable with when you've given the tool to acquire information to students, isthat you have to be comfortable with this idea of allowing kids to fail as part of the learningprocess. We deal right now in the educational landscape with an infatuation with the culture ofone right answer that can be properly bubbled on the average multiple choice test, and I amhere to share with you: it is not learning. That is the absolute wrong thing to ask, to tell kids tonever be wrong. To ask them to always have the right answer doesn't allow them to learn. Sowe did this project, and this is one of the artifacts of the project. I almost never show them offbecause of the issue of the idea of failure.
My students produced these info-graphics as a result of a unit that we decided to do at the endof the year responding to the oil spill. I asked them to take the examples that we were seeing ofthe info-graphics that existed in a lot of mass media, and take a look at what were theinteresting components of it, and produce one for themselves of a different man-made disasterfrom American history. And they had certain criteria to do it. They were a little uncomfortablewith it, because we'd never done this before, and they didn't know exactly how to do it. Theycan talk -- they're very smooth, and they can write very, very well, but asking them tocommunicate ideas in a different way was a little uncomfortable for them. But I gave them theroom to just do the thing. Go create. Go figure it out. Let's see what we can do. And thestudent that persistently turns out the best visual product did not disappoint. This was done inlike two or three days. And this is the work of the student that consistently did it.
And when I sat the students down, I said, "Who's got the best one" And they immediatelywent, "There it is." Didn't read anything. "There it is." And I said,
"Well what makes it great"And they're like,
"Oh, the design's good, and he's using good color. And there's some ...
" Andthey went through all that we processed out loud. And I said, "Go read it." And they're like, "Oh,that one wasn't so awesome." And then we went to another one -- it didn't have great visuals,but it had great information -- and spent an hour talking about the learning process, because itwasn't about whether or not it was perfect, or whether or not it was what I could create. Itasked them to create for themselves, and it allowed them to fail, process, learn from. And whenwe do another round of this in my class this year, they will do better this time, because learninghas to include an amount of failure, because failure is instructional in the process.
There are a million pictures that I could click through here, and had to choose carefully -- this isone of my favorites -- of students learning, of what learning can look like in a landscape wherewe let
go of the idea that kids have to come to school to get the information, but instead, askthem what they can do with it. Ask them really interesting questions. They will not disappoint.Ask them to go to places, to see things for themselves, to actually experience the learning, toplay, to inquire. This is one of my favorite photos, because this was taken on Tuesday, when Iasked the students to go to the polls. This is Robbie, and this was his first day of voting, and hewanted to share that with everybody and do that. But this is learning too, because we askedthem to go out into real spaces.
The main point is that, if we continue to look at education as if it's about coming to school to getthe information and not about experiential learning, empowering student voice and embracingfailure, we're missing the mark. And everything that everybody is talking about today isn'tpossible if we keep having an educational system that does not value these qualities, becausewe won't get there with a standardized test, and we won't get there with a culture of one rightanswer. We know how to do this better, and it's time to do better.
我从事教师工作很长一段时间了， 而在我教书的过程当中 我学了很多关于孩子与学习的知识 我非常希望更多人可以了解 学生的潜能。 1931年,我的祖母 从你们那边看过来左下角那位-- 从八年级毕业。 她上学是去获取知识 因为在过去,那是知识存在的地方 知识在书本里,在老师的脑袋里， 而她需要专程到学校去获得这些知识， 因为那是当时学习的途径 快进过一代： 这是个只有一间教室的学校,Oak Grove， 我父亲就是在这间只有一个教室的学校就读。 而同样的,他不得不去上学 以从老师那儿取得知识， 然后将这些知识储存在他唯一的移动内存,那就是他自己的脑袋里， 然后将这些随身携带， 因为这是过去知识被传递的方式 从老师传给学生,接着在世界上使用。 当我还小的时候， 我们家里有一套百科全书。 从我一出生就买了这套书， 而那是非常了不起的事情， 因为我不需要等着去图书馆取得这些知识， 这些信息就在我的屋子里 而那真是太棒了。 这是 和过去相比,是非常不同的 这改变了我和信息互动的方式 即便改变的幅度很小。 但这些知识却离我更近了。 我可以随时获取它们。
在过去的这几年间 从我还在念高中 到我开始教书的时候， 我们真的亲眼目睹网络的发展。 就在网络开始 作为教学用的工具发展的时候， 我离开威斯康辛州 搬到勘萨斯州,一个叫勘萨斯的小镇 在那里我有机会 在一个小而美丽的勘萨斯的乡村学区 教书， 教我最喜欢的学科 "美国政府" 那是我教书的第一年,充满热情,准备教"美国政府" 我当时热爱教政治体系。 这些十二年级的孩子 对于美国政府体系 并不完全充满热情。 开始教书的第二年,我学到了一些事情,让我改变了教学方针。 我提供他们一个真实体验的机会 让他们可以自主学习。 我没有告诉他们得做什么,或是要怎么做。 我只是在他们面前提出一个问题， 要他们在自己的社区设立一个选举论坛。
他们散布传单,联络各个选举办公室， 他们和秘书排定行程， 他们设计了一本选举论坛手册 提供给全镇的镇民让他们更了解这些候选人。 他们邀请所有的人到学校 参与晚上的座谈 谈论政府和政治 还有镇里的每条街是不是都修建完善， 学生们真的得到强大的体验式学习。 学校里比较资深年长的老师 看着我说 "喔,看她,多天真呀,竟想试着这么做。" (大笑)
"她不知道她把自己陷入怎么样的局面" 但我知道孩子们会出席 而我真的这样相信。 每个礼拜我都对他们说我是如何期待他们的表现。 而那天晚上,全部九十个孩子 每个人的穿戴整齐,各司其职,完全掌握论坛 我只需要坐在一旁看着。 那是属于他们的夜晚,那是经验,那是实在的经验。 那对他们来说具有意义。 而他们将会更加努力。
离开堪萨斯后,我搬到美丽的亚利桑纳州， 我在Flagstaff小镇教了几年书， 这次是教初中的学生。 幸运的,我这次不用教美国政治。 这次我教的是更令人兴奋的地理。 再一次,非常期待的要学习。 但有趣的是 我发现在这个亚历桑纳州的教职 我所面对的 是一群非常多样化的,彼此之间差异悬殊的孩子们 在一所真正的公立学校。 在那里,有些时候,我们会得到了一些机会。 其中一个机会是 我们得以和Paul Russabagina见面， 这位先生 正是电影"卢安达饭店"根据描述的那位主人翁 他当时正要到隔壁的高中演讲 我们可以步行到那所学校,我们甚至不用坐公共汽车 完全不需要额外的支出,非常完美的校外教学
然后接着的问题是 你要怎么和七八年级的学生谈论种族屠杀 用怎么样的方式来处理这个问题 才是一种负责任和尊重的方式， 让学生们知道该怎么面对这个问题。 所以我们决定去观察PaulRusesabagina是怎么做的 把他当作一个例子 一个平凡人如何利用自己的生命做些积极的事情的例子。 接着,我挑战这些孩子,要他们去找出 在他们的生命里,在他们自己的故事中,或是在他们自己的世界里， 找出那些他们认为也做过类似事情的人。 我要他们为这些人和事迹制作一部短片。 这是我们第一次尝试制作短片。 没有人真的知道如何利用电脑制作短片。 但他们非常投入,我要他们在片子里用自己的声音。 那实在是最棒的启发方式 当你要孩子们用他们自己的声音 当你要他们为自己说话， 说那些他们愿意分享的故事。 这项作业的最后一个问题是 你打算怎么利用你自己的生命 去正面的影响其他人 孩子们说出来的那些话 在你询问他们后并花时间倾听那些话后 是非常了不起的。
快进到宾州,我现在住的地方。 我在科学领导学院教书， 它是富兰克林学院 和费城学区协同的合办的。 我们是一间9年级到12年级的公立高中， 但我们的教学方式很不一样。 我起初搬到那里 是为了亲身参与一个教学环境 一个可以证实我所理解孩子可以有效学习方式的方式， 一个愿意探索 所有可能性的教学环境 当你愿意放弃 一些过去的标准模式， 放弃我祖母和我父亲上学的那个年代 甚至是我自己念书的那个年代，因为信息的稀缺， 到一个我们正处于信息过剩的时代。 所以你该怎么处理那些环绕在四周的知识你为什么要孩子们来学校如果他们再也不需要特意到学校获得这些知识
在宾州,我们有一个人人有笔记本的项目， 所以这些孩子每天带着他们笔记本电脑， 带着电脑回家,随时学习知识。 有一件事你需要学着适应的是 当你给了学生工具 让他们可以自主取得知识， 你得适应一个想法 那就是允许孩子失败 把失败视为学习的一部分。 我们现在面对教育大环境 带着一种 迷恋单一解答的文化 一种靠选择题折优的文化， 而我在这里要告诉你们， 这不是学习。 这绝对是个错误 去要求孩子们永远不可以犯错。 要求他们永远都要有正确的解答 而不允许他们去学习。 所以我们实施了这个项目， 这就是这个项目中一件作品。 我几乎从来没有展示过这些 因为我们对于错误与失败的观念。
Why TED talks are better than the last speech you sat through
Think about the last time you heard someone give a speech, or any formal presentation. Maybe it was so long that you were either overwhelmed with data, or you just tuned the speaker out. If PowerPoint was involved, each slide was probably loaded with at least 40 words or figures, and odds are that you don't remember more than a tiny bit of what they were supposed to show.
Pretty uninspiring, huhTalk Like TED: 9 Public-Speaking Secrets of The World's Best Mindsexamines why in prose that's as lively and appealing as, well, a TED talk. Timed to coincide with the 30th anniversary in March of those now-legendary TED conferences, the book draws on current brain science to explain what wins over, and fires up, an audience -- and what doesn't. Author Carmine Gallo also studied more than 500 of the most popular TED speeches (there have been about 1,500 so far) and interviewed scores of the people who gave them.
相当平淡，是吧？《像TED那样演讲：全球顶级人才九大演讲秘诀》(Talk Like TED: 9 Public-Speaking Secrets of The World's Best Minds)一书以流畅的文笔审视了为什么TED演讲如此生动，如此引人入胜。出版方有意安排在今年3月份发行此书，以庆贺如今已成为经典的TED大会成立30周年。这部著作借鉴当代脑科学解释了什么样的演讲能够说服听众、鼓舞听众，什么样的演讲无法产生这种效果。
Much of what he found out is surprising. Consider, for instance, the fact that each TED talk is limited to 18 minutes. That might sound too short to convey much. Yet TED curator Chris Anderson imposed the time limit, he told Gallo, because it's "long enough to be serious and short enough to hold people's attention ... By forcing speakers who are used to going on for 45 minutes to bring it down to 18, you get them to think about what they really want to say." It's also the perfect length if you want your message to go viral, Anderson says.
Recent neuroscience shows why the time limit works so well: People listening to a presentation are storing data for retrieval in the future, and too much information leads to "cognitive overload," which gives rise to elevated levels of anxiety -- meaning that, if you go on and on, your audience will start to resist you. Even worse, they won't recall a single point you were trying to make.
"Albert Einstein once said, 'If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough,'
" Gallo writes, adding that the physicist would have applauded astronomer David Christian who, at TED in 2011, narrated the complete history of the universe -- and Earth's place in it -- in 17 minutes and 40 seconds.
Gallo offers some tips on how to boil a complex presentation down to 18 minutes or so, including what he calls the "rule of three," or condensing a plethora of ideas into three main points, as many top TED talkers do. He also notes that, even if a speech just can't be squeezed down that far, the effort alone is bound to improve it: "Your presentation will be far more creative and impactful simply by going through the exercise."
Then there's PowerPoint. "TED represents the end of PowerPoint as we know it," writes Gallo. He hastens to add that there's nothing wrong with PowerPoint as a tool, but that most speakers unwittingly make it work against them by cluttering up their slides with way too many words (40, on average) and numbers.
The remedy for that, based on the most riveting TED talks: If you must use slides, fill them with a lot more images. Once again, research backs this up, with something academics call the Picture Superiority Effect: Three days after hearing or reading a set of facts, most people will remember about 10% of the information. Add a photo or a drawing, and recall jumps to 65%.
最吸引人的TED演讲为我们提供了一个补救策略：如果你必须使用幻灯片，务必记得要大量运用图像资源。这种做法同样有科学依据，它就是研究人员所称的“图优效应”(Picture Superiority Effect)：听到或读到一组事实三天后，大多数人会记得大约10%的信息。而添加一张照片或图片后，记忆率将跃升至65%。
One study, by molecular biologist John Medina at the University of Washington School of Medicine, found that not only could people recall more than 2,500 pictures with at least 90% accuracy several days later, but accuracy a whole year afterward was still at about 63%.
华盛顿大学医学院(University of Washington School of Medicine)分子生物学家约翰梅迪纳主持的研究发现，几天后，人们能够回想起超过2,500张图片，准确率至少达到90%；一年后的准确率依然保持在63%左右。
That result "demolishes" print and speech, both of which were tested on the same group of subjects, Medina's study indicated, which is something worth bearing in mind for anybody hoping that his or her ideas will be remembered.
TED（指technology, entertainment, design在英语中的缩写，即技术、娱乐、设计）是美国的一家私有非营利机构，该机构以它组织的TED大会著称。TED诞生於1984年，其发起人是里查德·沃曼。
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【TED55】Alexander Tsiaras ：可视化记录婴儿受孕到出生2013-11-14
【TED66】Richard St. John：8个成功秘笈2013-11-25
【TED67】Judy MacDonald Johnston：为生命的终结做好准备2013-11-26