I. Supply the missing paragraph. (20 points)
The following passage is incomplete with one body paragraph missing. Study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph in about 100 words.Make sure that your tone and diction are in unity with the passage provided.
The Positive Effects of Owning a Dog on Children
Dogs are the best friend of children. The dog and the child teach each other things and they look after each other. Owning a dog can have positive effects on a child’s development. Having a dog develops a child’s sense of responsibility, broadens his capacity for empathy, and teaches him the nature of friendship.
The first advantage of owning a dog is that it’s helpful to develop a child’s sense of responsibility. Once you own a dog, you have to take care of it instead of only playing it: showering, feeding, walking, cleaning up, hair cutting and so on. Dogs are animals that have to spend time together with people or they get depressed. So you must take some time to stay with it. If they are sick, one can’t just leave it alone. All of these works are required to be carefully done which could make a child become more responsible.
Another lesson that a child can learn from having a dog is how to be empathetic. A dog cannot express itself with speech, so its owner must learn to understand what the dog’s behavior means. Is the dog frightened, aggressive, or sick? The child needs to understand what is going on in the dog’s mind. The result of learning to read a dog’s behavior is that the child develops mpathy. By learning how to empathize with a dog, the child also learns how to empathize with other people. This leads to the child becoming a more considerate and caring person.
Being considerate and caring are important characteristics in a good friend.One of the most significant benefits of owning a dog is the example of true friendship that a dog provides. A dog gives unconditional love to its owner. A dog will not stop loving its owner because of a little anger, indifference, or neglect. A dog will wait patiently for its owner to pat its head and say a few kind words. This acceptance of the negative qualities and appreciation for the positive qualities of its owner provide a wonderful model of how to be a good friend. A child who has learned to be as good a friend to others as his dog is to him will have learned one of the most valuable lessons in life.
These are some of the most important lessons a child will ever learn. The benefits of owning a dog will last in the child’s entire lifetime. The understanding and appreciation of responsibility, empathy, and friendship that a child develops from the experience of having a dog will help him or her grow into a reliable, caring, and mature adult.
II. Write an outline. (20 points)
Read the following passage carefully and compose a “topic outline” for it.
Acting out Metaphors Encourages Creative Thinking
It happens in schools, offices, and boardrooms everywhere: someone working on a project hits a mental block. A boss or teacher might resort to a metaphor like “think outside the box” or “put two and two together,” encouraging a creative solution to the problem. As it turns out, this isn’t just abstract advice. According to an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, literally working outside of a box or putting two halves of something together just might help those creative juices start flowing again.
Since physical metaphors regarding creativity are so common and appearing in several different languages, a group of researchers hypothesized that they may extend beyond mere metaphors. Their study indicates that acting out metaphors literally can affect how our minds work.
In the first part of the study, the researchers asked 102 undergraduates to perform a Remote Associates Test (RAT), in which the subjects were given three seemingly
uelated words and asked to come up with a word that relates to each one. For example, the subject might be given “measure,” “worm,” and “video,”and the correct response would be “tape.”
The participants were divided into three groups; one group was asked to perform this task while sitting inside a 5’ by 5’ cardboard box, another group sat outside the same box, and those in the third group performed the task without a box in the room at all. None of the
participants knew the hypothesis behind the study; they were merely told it was an experiment on different working environments.
There was no difference in performance between those inside the box and those with no box at all. However, the participants that were seated outside the box did much better on the RAT than the other two groups. Apparently, something about literally “thinking outside the box” encourages creativity.
A second experiment looked at another well-known piece of advice: to “put two and two together” to come up with an answer. In the study, 64 subjects were divided into two groups. The first group had to perform a RAT while joining halves of cut paper cards from piles on each side of a desk. The second group performed a similar task, but only had to move card halves from one side of a desk to the other side. Those “putting two and two together” by uniting the two halves of the cards did far better on the RAT than those that were merely moving the cards from one pile to another.
So, acting out metaphors linked to creativity really can help us think creatively. In fact, it does more than let us access the knowledge we presently have; it encourages us to come up with new, unique and creative ideas. Next time you’re stuck on a problem, take a minute to ponder—or even act out—your favorite metaphor, and you might happen upon a great solution.
Acting out Metaphors Encourages Creative Thinking
It happens everywhere: mental block. A boss or teacher might resort to a metaphor like “think outside the box” or “put two and two together”. This isn’t just abstract advice but might really help have creative thoughts.
A group of researchers hypothesized that acting out metaphors may extend beyond mere metaphors. They can affect how our minds work.
In the first study, the researchers asked 102 undergraduates to perform a Remote Associates Test (RAT). The subjects were given three uelated words and asked to answer a word that relates to each one.
The participants were divided into three groups; one group was asked to perform this task while sitting inside a cardboard box, another group sat outside the same box, and those in the third group performed the task without a box in the room.
There was no difference in performance between those inside the box and those with no box at all. However, the participants outside the box did much better on the RAT. Apparently, something about literally “thinking outside the box” encourages creativity.
The second experiment focused on another advice: to “put two and two together” to come up with an answer. In the study, 64 subjects were divided into two groups. The first group performed a RAT while joining halves of cut paper cards together. The second group performed a similar task, but only had to move card halves from one side of a desk to the other side. Those uniting the two halves of the cards did far better on the RAT than those that were merely moving the cards from one pile to another.
So, acting out metaphors linked to creativity really can help us think creatively.
IIl. Compose an essay. (60 points)
People are more and more concerned about the environment. Write a 300-word
expository essay stating your opinion about what we can do as individuals to improve our environment.
How to improve our environment
Nowadays, environment problems are are becoming more and more influential to our daily lives than only appearing in newspapers and TVs, lectures or reports. For instance, in the last winter, foggy days with the so called PM2.5 caused a panic among citizens. People were afraid of the polluted air and chose to stay at home instead of going out.
Protecting the environment is really an extremely urgent thing. As we all know, low carbon life was proposed in recent years and I think it would be a reasonable way to solve our environment crisis.
We can figure out what benefits can be gained when we transfer this conception into a real existence, a low carbon campus. This simple shift of perspective can actually transform what used to be quite far away into something that is just around us.
Take the use of electronic devices for example, when we choose to climb the stairs instead of using an elevator, when we prefer bicycles to cars, we are doing something fantastic for ourselves. Think about these activities as exercises that would not only keep us physically fit, but also spiritually energetic. If we turn off the computer when they are not in use, or even limit the hours we spend in front of them, we are not only saving the electricity, but also doing a favor to our body, preventing ourselves from too much exposure to radiation and other possible harms caused by computer. We can gain at the same tine a healthy and pain-free neck, and avoid sore muscles, worsening eyesight and so on. When we use natural wind, rather than fans or air conditioner to feel cool in summer, we are also reducing the possibilities of all the illness related to the electronic devices.
What we eat can also contribute to the establishment of a low carbon campus. More
vegetables and less meat mean that less carbon will be emitted in the process of producing and preparing for such foods. And this can also translate to a more balanced diet and healthier eating habits. Then many problems, such as overweight, tiredness or even high blood pressure and heart disease can be controlled to a certain extent when we get older. And this good eating habit actually benefits us for a life time, and what starts at campus goes a long way.
From the above analysis, we can get the basic idea that when we are doing something to reduce the carbon campus, but at the same time, we are make positive changes for oueselves.
一：Sentence development 句子写作。
1） You always remain a victim
You will always remain a victim ,not only of some popular books ,but also of some people concerned.
2) Such an attitude would emphasize the value of life.
Such an attitude would emphasize sharply the value of life.
3)”Happy Christmas “he said.
“Happy Christmas “he said, smiling and picking out two flowers.
4)The piano player began to sing loudly.
The piano player began to sing loudly ,beating the keys with magic hands ,and nodding his head in rhythm.
5)I was very embarrassed .
I didn’t know what I should do.
I was very embarrassed ;I didn’t know what I should do.
6)Today at school Mr Moore brought in his pet rabbit.
He showed it to the class.
Today at school Mr Moore brought in his pet rabbit ,and he showed it to the class.
7)He is very busy preparing IELTS.
He has no time to play.
He is very busy preparing IELTS; therefore , He has no time to play.
8)The judge had a hard time deciding___________________.
The judge had a hard time deciding where painting was the best.
9)The house ____is still standing.
The house which Abraham Lincoln was born is still standing.
10)My presentation seemed to go well.
My presentation seemed to go well although I was feeling really nervous.
1 What are the paragraph qualities?
Unity and coherence
2How many parts is an article usually composed of? What are they?
Three parts: introduction ,body and conclusion.
3How many forms can articles be roughly divided into？what are they?
Four forms :description ,narration ,argumentation and exposition.
4How many parts does a science and technology paper consist of? What are they?
Seven parts: title and authors name ,summary, contents ,text, acknowledgements, references, biographty.
5What are the characteristics of good writings?
Good thinking,to the point ,revisions, appropriate ,style for the purpose ,clear organization,
effective use of expressions reader oriented, simple and short, precise.
6What are the key features of a research paper?
A :It is based on extensive research of proven facts and authoritative testimony .
B:The author’s voice tends to be objective and neutral.
C:The style tends to be formal.
三 Science and technology writing in English .科技英语写作。
1 Write out definitions of the subjects given below , using the notes provided next to each subjects.
Biology is the scientific study of the natural processes of living things.(Biology may be defined as the science which natural processes of living things.)
Chemistry may be defined as a branch of science which deals with the basic characteristics of substances and the different ways in which they react or or combine with other substances.
Anthropology may be defined as the branch of seience which studies the human race ,its culture and society and its physical development.
Home Economics is the study of household management .It is largely concerned with learning how to deal with problems and challenges of homemarking.
Electrical and electronic engineering is a discipline which is enjoying a period of exciting and dynamic growth , Its findings are being applied with increasing frequency and effectiveness in households, medicine ,industry ,public services and business. Its great impact on modern life is likely to become even more dramatic in the near future.
4Revise or rewrite the following definitions below to make them more appropriate .You may consult a dictionary.
A school is a place where people, especially young people ,are educated.
An astronomer is a scientist who studies the universe as a whole and the objects which exist naturally in space ,such as the sun ,the moon ,planets and stars.
A degree is an academic qualification which is given by a college or university to a student who has completed a course of study.
A computer is an electronic machine which can solve mathematical problems at very high speeds.. It is nowadays mainly used for storing and recalling information ,and for controlling other machines .It has brought about great convenience and high efficiency ,thus releasing a vast number of manhours to be used in other efforts.
Sport is a game ,competition or activity which can be generally divided into the following broad categories:track and field ,ballgame ,gymnastics .Track and field events can be further divided
into such activities an jumping ,throwing ,running and walking.
(2) The part of literature review is the longest since it includes specific information about different studies.