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天净沙秋思的赏析「」

时间:2018-01-02 13:44:25 我要投稿

天净沙秋思的赏析「精品」

  导语:《天净沙·秋思》是元曲作家马致远创作的一首小令。此曲以多种景物并置,组合成一幅秋郊夕照图,让天涯游子骑一匹瘦马出现在一派凄凉的背景上,从中透出令人哀愁的情调,抒发了一个飘零天涯的游子在秋天思念故乡、倦于漂泊的凄苦愁楚之情。以下是小编整理天净沙秋思的赏析的资料,欢迎阅读参考。

  马致远

  枯藤老树昏鸦,小桥流水人家,古道西风瘦马。夕阳西下,断肠人在天涯。

  赏析:

  这首小令仅五句28字,语言极为凝炼却容量巨大,寥寥数笔就勾画出一幅悲绪四溢的“游子思归图”,淋漓尽致地传达出漂泊羁旅的游子心。

  这幅图画由两部分构成:

  一、由精心选取的几组能代表萧秋的景物组成一幅暮色苍茫的秋野图景;

  二、抒写内心深处无尽伤痛而独行寒秋的天涯游子剪影。

  第一幅画共18个字九个名词,其间无一虚词,却自然流畅而涵蕴丰富,作者以其娴熟的艺术技巧,让九种不同的景物沐于夕阳的清辉之下,象电影镜头一样以“蒙太奇”的笔法在我们面前依次呈现,一下子就把读者带入深秋时节:几根枯藤缠绕着几颗凋零了黄叶的秃树,在秋风萧萧中瑟瑟地颤抖,天空中点点寒鸦,声声哀鸣……写出了一片萧飒悲凉的秋景,造成一种凄清衰颓的氛围,烘托出作者内心的悲戚。我们可以想象,昏鸦尚能有老树可归,而游子却漂泊无着,有家难归,其间该是何等的`悲苦与无奈啊!接下来,眼前呈现一座小桥,潺潺的流水,还有依稀袅起炊烟的农家小院。这种有人家安居其间的田园小景是那样幽静而甜蜜,安逸而闲致。这一切,不能不令浪迹天涯的游子想起自己家乡的小桥、流水和亲人。在这里,以乐景写哀情,令人倍感凄凉,烘托出沦落他乡的游子那内心彷徨无助的客子之悲。

  第二幅画里,我们可以看到,在萧瑟的秋风中,在寂寞的古道上,饱尝乡愁的游子却骑着一匹延滞归期的瘦马,在沉沉的暮色中向着远方踽踽而行。此时,夕阳正西沉,撒下凄冷的斜晖,本是鸟禽回巢、羊牛回圈、人儿归家的团圆时刻,而游子却仍是“断肠人在天涯”,此时此刻、此情此景,漂泊他乡的游子面对如此萧瑟凄凉的景象,怎能不悲从中来,怎能不撕心裂肺,怎能不柔肠寸断!一颗漂泊羁旅的游子心在秋风中鲜血淋淋……

  一支极为简短的小曲,表达了难以尽述的内蕴,形象地描绘出天涯游子凄楚、悲怆的内心世界,给人以震撼人心的艺术感受。让人读之而倍感其苦,咏之而更感其心。读此曲而不泪下者不明其意也。

  这首小令之所以获得如此高的赞誉,一方面是由于它描绘了一幅绝妙的深秋晚景图,真切地表现出天涯沦落人的孤寂愁苦之情,情调虽然低沉,但却反映了当时沉闷的时代气氛,具有一定的社会意义。另一方面,更主要的是它有很高的艺术成就。

  比较明显的特点是:

  1.简约与深细相依

  古人宋玉曾用“增之一分则太长,减之一分则太短”,来形容美女身量的恰到好处。《天净沙秋思》文字之精炼,也可以说达到了不能再增、减一字的程度。全篇仅五句,二十八字,既无夸张,也不用典,纯用白描勾勒出这样一幅生动的图景:深秋的黄昏,一个风尘仆仆的游子,骑着一匹瘦马,迎着一阵阵冷飕飕的西风,在古道上踽踽独行。他走过缠满枯藤的老树,看到即将归巢的暮鸦在树梢上盘旋;他走过横架在溪流上的小桥,来到溪边的几户人家门前,这时太阳快要落山了,自己却还没有找到投宿的地方,迎接他的又将是一个漫漫的长夜,不禁悲从中来,肝肠寸断。至于游子为什么飘泊到这里?他究竟要到哪里去?这些言外之意,尽可听凭读者自己去想像。这首小令,确实不愧为言简意丰、以少胜多的佳作。小令的前三句,十八个字,共写了藤、树、鸦、桥、水、家、道、风、马九种事物,一字一词,一字一景,真可谓“惜墨如金”。但是,凝练而并不简陋,九种事物名称之前分别冠以枯、老、昏、小、流、人、古、西、瘦等表现各自特征的修饰语,使各个事物都带上了鲜明的个性,又使本来互不相干的事物,在苍凉的深秋暮色笼罩下,构成了一个统一体。作者没有写这些事物的方位,也未写这些事物与游子活动的关系,但读者又可以想像得到,并把它们紧密地联系起来。简约之中见出深细。

  2.静景与动景相映

  《天净沙秋思》的艺术效果,又得力于成功地运用映衬技法。作者将许多相对独立的事物同时纳入一个画面之中,从而形成动与静、明与暗、背景与主体的相互映衬:处于动态中的“流水”,与处于静态中的“小桥”“人家”相映,更显出环境的幽静;“西风”与“古道”相映,使道路更见苍凉;在作者勾勒的秋景图上,一面是枯藤、老树、昏鸦在秋风萧飒中一派灰暗,一面是落日的余晖给枯藤、老树、昏鸦涂上一抹金黄的颜色;“小桥流水人家”,呈现一派清雅、安适的景象,与沦落异乡的游子相映,使“断肠人”更添悲愁。从整个构图看,前四句写景,末一句写人。但人是主体,景物是人活动的背景,把背景写充分了,主体就被烘托出来了。这正是相互映衬的妙用。

  3.景色与情思相融

  诗言志。这首小令旨在表达天涯沦落人的凄苦之情。但人的思想感情,是抽象的东西,难于表达。作者运用传统的寄情于物的写法,把这种凄苦愁楚之情,刻画得淋漓尽致。枯藤、老树、昏鸦、西风、瘦马、夕阳,这些有形的可感的事物,具有明显的深秋色彩,与无形的抽象的凄苦之情,有相通之处,用有形表现无形,方使人感到具体生动。正如“问君能有几多愁?恰似一江春水向东流”,“愁”与“水”本无联系,但作者借江水之多,喻愁之多,二者有“恰似”之处,用江水东流之景,表达无限的悲愁之情,十分深刻。自然景物本来是没有思想感情的,但当诗人把这些客观事物纳入审美的认识和感受之中,这些事物便被赋予感情的色彩,同人的思想感情融为一体了。“小桥流水人家”,不过是极常见的普通景色,但当它与“断肠人在天涯”同处于一个图景之中时,便不再是孤立的景物,而成为使“断肠人”心碎肠断的触发物,使图景带上悲凉的气氛。所谓“情因景而显,景因情而生”,就是这个道理。《天净沙秋思》堪称景中有情,情中有景,情景妙合无痕的杰作。

  延伸阅读(英语版)

  Ma Zhiyuan

  The old tree of the withered vine, the little bridge, the west wind and the thin horse. The sun is setting and the man is at the end of the world.

  Appreciation:

  This first poem only five other 28 words, language is very would have huge capacity, a few pen is paint a picture of a sad mood of 4 "the wanderer to map", incisively and vividly conveys wandering there heart roaming.

  The picture consists of two parts:

  One, by carefully selected groups can represent the landscape of the autumn scenery of the twilight;

  Two, express the innermost feelings of the heart endless pain and walk alone in the end of the world.

  The first picture, a total of 18 word nine nouns, during which there is no function, has abundant natural smooth and emphasizing, the author with skillful artistry, let nine different scenery mu under radiance of the setting sun, like a film camera with the technique of "montage" in front of us in turn to present, just put the reader into late autumn season, a few root dry vine wrapped around a few withered and yellow leaves of bald trees, in the autumn wind rustling the se se shiver, jackdaws dots in the sky, sound moan... Write a piece of bleak autumn scenery, create a kind of sad and desolate atmosphere, foil the author's inner woe. We can imagine that the daze can still have the old tree to return, while the wandering son is adrift, there is a family hard to return, in the meantime should be how sad and helpless ah! Next, there was a small bridge, a gurgling water, and a small courtyard of a farmhouse that had a small smoke from the kitchen. This kind of bucolic scene that has a person to reside in the meantime is so quiet and sweet, comfortable and carefree. All this, the wandering wandering mind can't help thinking of the small Bridges, flowing water and loved ones in their hometown. Here, it is sad to write a sad feeling in the music scene, in the way of the wandering of the village, the heart of the helpless guest.

  In the second picture, we can see, in the bleak autumn wind, in the lonely road, wandering through the nostalgia is riding a delayed return of thin horse, flourished in deep twilight from far away. At this point, the setting sun is sinking, and the darkness XieHui, this is a birds nest, the sheep cattle back into the circle, person home reunion moment, while the wanderer is still "heartbroken people in the end of the world", at this moment, I liked this, wandering wandering elsewhere in the face of such a bleak and desolate scene, how can not sad to, how can not tore heart crack lung, cannot fail to heart grieved! A wandering heart in the autumn wind with blood...

  A very short song, which expresses the inexpressible connotation, vividly depicts the sad and pathless inner world of the wandering world, giving people an impressive artistic feeling. Let a man read it and feel bitter, and chant it and feel his heart. Reading this song without tears is not clear.

  This first poem is to obtain such a high praise, on the one hand, because it is painted a wonderful autumn outlook figure, appear to be real tianya reduced people's loneliness and sorrow of love, emotional appeal, though low, but it reflects the era of depressing atmosphere at the time, has certain social significance. On the other hand, it has high artistic achievements.

  The obvious features are:

  1. Simple and deep

  Song yuzeng of the ancients used "one of the points is too long, subtract one is too short", to describe the beauty figure of the proper. The refinement of the written word "net of the sky" can also be said to achieve the degree to which it can no longer be added or reduced. Just five words as a whole, twenty eight words, no exaggeration, also not is because, pure with lyrics outline of such a vivid picture: late autumn evening, a wandering travel-stained, riding a thin horse, against the chilly westerly wind waves, walk alone on the road. He passed the old tree, which was covered with withered vines, and saw the raven, which was about to return to his nest, circling the tree-tops; He walked across the bridge over the stream, came to the door of the stream of a few families, when the sun went to bed soon myself but haven't find a place to stay, to meet him and will be a long night, can't help sadness, deeply grieved. Why did the wanderer float here? Where the hell is he going? These words are meant to be imagined by the reader himself. This little order, indeed, is a good word for Jane, with little success. The first three sentences of the small order, eighteen words, wrote the vine, the tree, the crow, the bridge, the water, the house, the road, the wind, the horse nine kinds of things, one word, one word, the word is a word, really is "the close to the gold". However, concise and do not humble, name nine things before respectively as withered, old, faint, small, flow, such as people, ancient, west, thin performance characteristics of their respective modifiers, make all things with distinctive personality, make originally unrelated things again, in the autumn dusk shrouded, desolate, form a continuum. The author does not write about these things, nor does he write about the relationship between these things and the activities of the wandering, but the reader can imagine and connect them closely. The simplicity reveals deep.

  2. The quiet and the moving scenery

  The artistic effect of "net sandakan" is also effective in the successful application of the set of techniques. The writer put many things at the same time into a relatively independent images, thus forming dynamic and static, bright and dark, and the effect of the background and main body: "water" in the dynamic, and the "bridge" "people" in the static set each other off, more show environment quiet; "West wind" and "ancient road" photograph, make the road more see desolate; In the picture of the autumn scene outlined by the author, one side is the withered vine, the old tree, the daze is in the autumn wind and the gray, one is the sunset afterglow to the withered vine, the old tree, the daze is painted a golden color; "Small bridge water family", the scene that presents a faction is elegant, comfortable, with the wandering son that fall in a foreign country photograph, make "cut intestines person" more add sadness. From the whole composition, the first four pictures and the last sentence. But the person is the subject, the scene is the background of the person activity, write the background adequately, the main body is foil to come out. This is the great use of each other.

  The scenery is in harmony with love

  Will and poetry. This small order aims to express the sad feelings of people in the end of the world. But people's thoughts and feelings are abstract things, difficult to express. The writer USES the traditional method of sending affection in the writing of things, and depicts this sad and sad feeling to the best. Dry vine, old trees, the faint crow, west wind, thin horses, the setting sun, these tangible things perceptible, has obvious late autumn colors, with invisible abstract bitterness of love, there are similarities, with the intangible tangible performance, make the person feels your specific and vivid. Just as "ask how many worries can you have? Just like a spring waters flow east ", "sorrow" and "water" in this connection, the authors borrow river, yu sorrow, is "like", both in the east river flow of the scene, express infinite sorrow, very deep. Natural scenery was no emotions, but when the poet put these into the aesthetic understanding of objective things and feelings, these things will be given the feelings of colors, blend into the thoughts and feelings of the people. "Small bridge flowing water somebody else", but is extremely common ordinary scenery, but when it with "heartbroken people in the end of the world" in a picture, it is no longer isolated scenery, and became the "heartbroken" heartbreak heartbroken triggers, make picture bring sad atmosphere. This is the reason why the so-called "emotion is revealed by the scene". "The sky net sand autumn si" is the scene of the scene, the scene, the wonderful and the unmarked masterpiece.

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