高考文言句子翻译学案 (人教版高三必修五)

发布时间:2016-4-13 编辑:互联网 手机版

考纲要求:理解并翻译文言文中的句子。文言文翻译是考查考生文言文阅读能力最直接、最有效的方式,一直以来是高考文言阅读的重点(02年5分,04年8分,最近几年一直是10分 )。

翻译要求:“信”即字字落实不走样;“达”即文从句顺无语病;“雅”即生动形象有文采。

翻译原则:直译为主,意译为辅

翻译方法:留、删、换、补、调、贯

课内翻译练习

一.翻译时注意下列句子中哪些是该“留”的。

1.荆轲顾笑武阳。                                                              

2.侣鱼虾而友麋鹿。                                                            

3.孔子师郯子、苌弘、师襄、老聃。                                                    

4.以相如功大,拜为上卿。                                                      

二.翻译时注意下列句子中哪些是该“删”的。

1.壮士一去兮不复还。                                                          

2.臣之壮也,犹不如人。                                                        

3.去来江口守空船。                                                           

4.夫晋,何厌之有?                                                           

三.翻译时注意下列句子中加点字的意思。

1.为仲卿母所遣。                                                             

2.师者,所以传道受业解惑也。                                                    

3.因宾客至蔺相如门谢罪。                                                    

4.沛公欲王关中。                                                            

5.范增数目项王。                                                            

6.群贤毕至,少长咸集。                                                      

7.火尚足以明也。                                                            

8.虽体解吾犹未变兮。                                                        

10.此所以学者不可以不深思而慎取之也。                                        

11.假舟楫者,非能水也,而绝江河。                                            

12.小学而大遗,吾未见其明也。                                                

13.圣人之所以为圣,愚人之所以为愚,其皆出于此乎?                            

                                                                             

14.左右欲刃相如。                                                            

15.以先国家之急而后私仇也。                                                  

16.臣诚恐见欺于王而负赵。                                                      

四.翻译时注意下列句子的语序。

1.太子及宾客知其事者,皆白衣冠以送之。                                      

                                                                             

2.高余冠之岌岌兮,长余佩之陆离。                                            

3.师不必贤于弟子,弟子不必不如师。                                          

4.不拘于时,学于余。                                                         

5.蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强。                                                   

6.求人可使报秦者,未得。                                                     

7.不吾知其亦矣兮。                                                           

8.句读之不知,惑之不解。                                                     

五.翻译时注意下列句子中省略的内容。

1.若舍郑以为东道主。                                                         

2.大王见臣列观。                                                             

3.距洞百余步,有碑仆道。                                                     

4.南取百越之地,以为桂林、象郡。                                             

课外翻译练习

翻译下列文言短文中画线的句子

一.不死药

有献不死之药于荆王①者,谒者②操之以入。中射之士③问曰:“可食乎?”曰:“可。”因夺而食之。王大怒,使人杀中射之士。中射之士使人说王曰:“臣问谒者,曰‘可食’,臣故食之,是臣无罪而罪在谒者也。且客献不死之药,臣食之而王杀臣,是死药④也,是客欺王也。夫杀无罪之臣而明⑤人之欺王也,不如释臣。”王乃不杀。(选自《韩非子说林》)

[注释]①荆王:楚王,此指顷襄王,名横。②谒者:掌管通报传达事宜的人。③中射之士:中射士,宫内侍御之臣。④死药:致人于死的药。⑤明:表明,显示。

1.有献不死之药于荆王者。

                                                                       

2.曰:“可。”因夺而食之。

                                                                       

3.臣食之而王杀臣,是死药④也,是客欺王也。

                                                                       

4.夫杀无罪之臣而明⑤人之欺王也,不如释臣。

                                                                       

二.曾子杀彘

曾子之妻之市,其子随之而泣。其母曰:“汝还,顾反为汝杀彘。”妻适市来,曾子欲捕彘杀之。妻止之曰:“特与婴儿戏耳。”曾子曰:“婴儿非与戏也。婴儿非有智也,待父母而学者也,听父母之教。今子欺之,是教子欺也。母欺子,子而不信其母,非所以成教也。”遂烹彘也。

1.曾子之妻之市,其子随之而泣。

                                                                       

2.婴儿非与戏也。

                                                                       

3.今子欺之,是教子欺也。

                                                                       

4.母欺子,子而不信其母,非所以成教也。

                                                                       

三.画鬼易

客有为齐王画者,齐王问曰:“画孰最难者?” 曰:“犬、马最难。” 曰:“孰最易者?” 曰:“鬼魅最易。” 曰:“何为?” 曰:“夫犬、马人所共知也,旦暮罄(显现)于前,不可类之,故难。鬼魅无形者,不罄于前,故易之也。”                                                                        

                                                                       

                                                                       

                                                                       

                                                                       

                                                                     

 

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