Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language.
The study of language as a whole is often called General linguistics.
Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.
It refers to the defining poperties of human language that distinguish it from any animal system of communication.
There is no logical connection between meanings and sounds.
P.S the arbitrary nature of language is a sign of sophistication and it makes it possible for language to have an unlimited source of expressions
Animals are quite limited in the messages they are able to send.
Language is a system, which consists of two sets of structures ,or two levels.
Language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker.
Human capacity for language has a genetic basis, but we have to be taught and learned the details of any language system. this showed that language is culturally transmitted. not by instinct. animals are born with the capacity to produce the set of calls peculiar to their species.
Competence is the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language.
Performance is the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication.
The study of language change through time. a diachronic study of language is a historical study, which studies the historical development of language over a period of time.
The study of a given language at a given time.
The abstract linguistic system shared by all members of a speech community.
The realization of langue in actual use.
It aims to lay down rules for ”correct” behavior, to tell people what they should say and what should not say.
A linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use.
1.language is not an isolated phenomenon, it’s a social activity carried out in a certain social environment by human beings.
⑴瑞士语言学家F.de Saussure F.de Saussure:Langue和parole的区别
⑵U.S.A linguist N.Chomsky美国语言学家N.Chomsky
Sapir---language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communication ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols.
Hall----language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols.
Chomsky---from now on I will consider language to be a set of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.
⑷U.S.A Linguist Charles Hockett美国语言学家Charles Hockett
3.the word ’language’ preceded by the zero-article ,it implies that linguistics studies not any particular language.
4.in order to discover the nature of the underlying language system ,what the linguists has to do first if to study language facts.
5.language is a complicated entity with multiple layers and facts, so it's hardly possible for the linguistics to deal with it all at once. 判断题
6.Frist drew the attention of the linguists were the sounds used in languages.最先引起语言学家注意的是语言的发音。