英语语言学课件

课件 时间:2017-09-03 编辑:秀丽 手机版
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  语言不是一种孤立的现象,而是人类在一定的社会环境下进行的一种社会活动。下面是小编整理的英语语言学课件,欢迎大家阅读参考!

  英语语言学知识点:定义

  1.语言学Linguistics

  Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language.

  2.普通语言学General Linguistics

  The study of language as a whole is often called General linguistics.

  3.语言language

  Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.

  语言是人类用来交际的任意性的有声符号体系。

  4.识别特征Design Features

  It refers to the defining poperties of human language that distinguish it from any animal system of communication.

  语言识别特征是指人类语言区别与其他任何动物的交际体系的限定性特征。

  Arbitrariness任意性

  Productivity多产性

  Duality双重性

  Displacement移位性

  Cultural transmission文化传递

  ⑴arbitrariness

  There is no logical connection between meanings and sounds.

  P.S the arbitrary nature of language is a sign of sophistication and it makes it possible for language to have an unlimited source of expressions

  ⑵Productivity

  Animals are quite limited in the messages they are able to send.

  ⑶Duality

  Language is a system, which consists of two sets of structures ,or two levels.

  ⑷Displacement

  Language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker.

  ⑸Cultural transmission

  Human capacity for language has a genetic basis, but we have to be taught and learned the details of any language system. this showed that language is culturally transmitted. not by instinct. animals are born with the capacity to produce the set of calls peculiar to their species.

  5.语言能力Competence

  Competence is the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language.

  6.语言运用performance

  Performance is the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication.

  语言运用是所掌握的规则在语言交际中的体现。

  7.历时语言学Diachronic linguistics

  The study of language change through time. a diachronic study of language is a historical study, which studies the historical development of language over a period of time.

  8.共时语言学Synchronical linguistics

  The study of a given language at a given time.

  9.语言langue

  The abstract linguistic system shared by all members of a speech community.

  10.言语parole

  The realization of langue in actual use.

  11.规定性Prescriptive

  It aims to lay down rules for ”correct” behavior, to tell people what they should say and what should not say.

  12.描述性Descriptive

  A linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use.

  英语语言学知识点:知识

  1.language is not an isolated phenomenon, it’s a social activity carried out in a certain social environment by human beings.

  语言不是一种孤立的现象,而是人类在一定的社会环境下进行的一种社会活动。

  2.几种观点和现象的提出者:

  ⑴瑞士语言学家F.de Saussure F.de Saussure:Langue和parole的区别

  ⑵U.S.A linguist N.Chomsky美国语言学家N.Chomsky

  in1950针对Saussure’s langue&parole提出Competence和performance

  ⑶曾经对语言概念下过定义的语言学家

  Sapir---language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communication ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols.

  Hall----language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols.

  Chomsky---from now on I will consider language to be a set of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.

  ⑷U.S.A Linguist Charles Hockett美国语言学家Charles Hockett

  提出了语言的识别特征design features

  3.the word ’language’ preceded by the zero-article ,it implies that linguistics studies not any particular language.

  Language一词前不加冠词说明语言学家不只研究一种特定的语言。

  4.in order to discover the nature of the underlying language system ,what the linguists has to do first if to study language facts.

  5.language is a complicated entity with multiple layers and facts, so it's hardly possible for the linguistics to deal with it all at once. 判断题

  6.Frist drew the attention of the linguists were the sounds used in languages.最先引起语言学家注意的是语言的发音。

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