A: Word Study
A1: Topic words
When we describe people or some other things, we use some adjectives from time to time. As you know, different adjectives have different meanings and functions. It’s very clear that we need to use different words to describe people/things we like or dislike.
The following adjectives can be used to describe people. Put the words into the table as the sample. You can add more adjectives you have learned.
active; angry; bad; beautiful; boring; brave; careful; careless; cheap; clever; cold; confident; dangerous; excellent; famous; friendly; funny; grateful; great; handsome; happy; healthy; helpful; honest; interesting; kind; kind-hearted; lazy; lovely; loyal; nervous; nice; pleasant; proud; quiet; rich; serious; smart; strange; strong; terrible; terrific; unusual; useful; weak; wise; wonderful; worst
Words used to describe people in
a positive sense Words with neutral meaning Words used to describe people in
a negative sense
honest, kind, quiet cheap, dangerous
1. Look at the following pictures, and fill in the blanks with the suitable words.
This is a picture of a ________ __________ with ___________ hair. Her hair is __________. She’s ________ eyes. Her nose is not ________. Her mouth is _______ and __________. She looks _________ and __________.
There is a _______ man in the picture. He wears a _________ shirt with a ________ tie. He is very _________ and has ___________ shoulders. His hair is ___________. His eyes are not very __________ and he is ________sighted so he wears a pair of __________.
Look at this picture. What is the _________ man doing now? He is dancing and he
feels___________. He is __________ and _________. His eyes are not very _________. He is wearing a ________ _________on his head. From his _________ and __________, we guess that he is from China.
This _______ girl is one of my ________ friends. Her name is Monica. She is very ___________. Her hair is __________ because it is ___________. Her face is ____________ with two ________ eyes, a ________ nose and her mouth looks like a ___________ cherry. She is so ________and _______ that all of us like to make ____________ with her.
This _______ man is very ________ in the world. His name is Samaranch. He is considered as a _______ and _________ man. His hair is _________ and his ________ _________ are very _________ and his nose is very _______ and _____. He has a ________ face with a _________ mouth. And of course his _______ are very big too.
1. What words do we use more often, nouns or adjectives? Can you give your partner some examples?
2. Sometimes we use “to pull a long face” to describe a person who is not pleased with somebody or something. Do you know what it means? Please look it up in your dictionary if you don’t know.
B1: Useful phrases
1. be fond of : having a liking for
1) If you are fond of someone, you like him.
2) I am very fond of Michael John for he sings well.
3) Have you ever seen anyone so fond of dancing?
2. to be into: (esp. in spoken/oral English) to be/become/get interested in; to show one’s interest in
1) People are into getting healthy now.
2) Mr. Blair is very deep (just sort of) into Shakespeare.
3) Little Tom says that he’s into electronics himself.
3. hunt for: to search; to look for…carefully
1) Some new arrivals lose hope even before they start hunting for a job.
2) Those young men are hunting for a house to rent at the moment.
3) Why are you so interested in hunting for that position in the company?
4. in order to: so that it is possible to
1) If you do something in order to achieve a particular thing, you do it because you want to achieve that thing.
2) She worked all summer in order to save enough money for a holiday.
3) In order for our relationship to continue, we need to talk about our problems.
5. treat somebody/something as: to deal with or regard in a certain manner
1) The naughty girl treats that mistake as a joke.
2) Police say they’re treating it as a case of attempted murder….
3) He was treated as a child when he first worked as a porter at a hotel.
6. care about/for: to have a regard or consideration for
1) He cares more about/for his hobby than his job.
2) The emperor cared more about/for his new clothes than anything else.
3) John is not well educated and does not care about/for the feelings of others
7. drop somebody a line: to send or post
1) Miss Alice dropped me a line from time to time when she stayed in Africa.
2) Please drop me a line as soon as you arrive in Sydney.
3) Her son has never dropped her a line since he joined the army ten years ago.
Complete the following sentences with the phrases mentioned above which match with the meaning of each sentence.
1. Mr. Wallace, one of my Canadian friends, said he would _________ us ______ __________ as soon as he arrived in Toronto.
2. Though my aunt Lucy is more than 45 years old, she __________ ______________ her clothes than anything else.
3. That lonely lady has no kids around, so she ________ her three pets _________ her own children.
4. Any weight-lifter should eat nothing ______ _______ _______ lose his weight before lifting weight in a competition.
5. Those industrial spies are always _________ ___________ the information of the new project carried on by our company.
6. Though the girl living next door has something wrong with her ears, she _____ still ______ ____
7. Debbie is the tallest in his class, but she ______ never ________ basketball.
B2: Useful grammatical structures and practice
1. I don’t enjoy singing, nor do I like computer.
We should put the form of –ing behind the word “enjoy” instead of the indefinite form of a verb.
I enjoy skiing / dancing /reading / traveling.
2. The sentence or clause led by “neither” or “nor” should be used in an inverted word order and “nor” is more formal. Look at the following examples:
1) -Paula doesn’t like skating.
-Neither / Nor does Lily.
2) -Jim isn’t coming to my party this evening.
-Neither / Nor is Kane.
3) -Alice can’t speak Russian.
-Neither can George.
4) My brother can’t drive a car, nor can I.
5) The food in that restaurant wasn’t delicious, and nor was the dessert.
3. I’m not into classical music.
The structure of “be + into” means “show one’s interest in…” and it is often used in informal English.
He’s given up photography now and he’s into modern music.
Put the following sentences into another structure without changing the meaning of each sentence.
1. Though Lily is poor at her singing, she is fond of classical and pop music. (enjoy)
2. She is very interested in ballet and has bought a lot of magazines of ballet published abroad. (enjoy)(so…that)
3. She likes watching series on TV very much even though she is at table.(enjoy)
4. The girls in my class didn’t go to the Pearl River Tour last Sunday. I didn’t go either. (neither...nor)
5. His father never swims in the river in summer. Little Jimmy doesn’t either. (neither…nor)
6. If you don’t want to take a bus there, I won’t either. (neither…nor)
7. That old man showed no interest in golf though he was very rich. (be into)
8. Most women are always caring for fashionable clothes. (be into)
9. She got interested in working on problems of chemistry when she was a student of Grade 9. (be into)
Look up in your dictionary to find the answers.
1. What kind of words or phrases should we use after “be fond of” or “enjoy”?
2. What is the difference between “be interested in” and “be into”?
3. How do you like the structure of “Rock music is OK, and so is skiing.” and the one “Rock music isn’t OK, and nor is skiing.”? Can you express the same ideas in a different way?
B3: Key grammatical items
Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
1. We should pay more attention to the changes of persons and tenses when a sentence of direct speech is changed into an indirect one.
2. Some verbs should be changed when a direct speech is changed into an indirect one.
1) “Sorry, I can’t go to your party tonight,” said John.
John said that he was sorry but he couldn’t come to my party this evening.
2) “They had gone away when I arrived at the station,” Tom told Mary.
Tom told Mary that they had gone away when he arrived at the station.
Questions for thinking about:
1. Should everything be changed when we change a direct speech into an indirect one?
2. What changes should we make if we change an indirect speech into a direct speech?
1. Turn the following sentences into direct speech or indirect speech.
“I’m going to come to your ball tonigh,” Sally told Virginia.
Sally told Virginia that she was going to go to her ball that night.
1. “I’d love to go with you, but I promised to meet Mr. Evens this weekend,” said Mr. Green.
2. “It’s very kind for you to invite me, but I’m not sure if I’m free then,” replied Diana.
3. “I wish I could come, but I have an appointment this evening,” said Jimmy.
4. “I’m sorry, but I don’t think I can,” said the guard.
5. “I want to show you what I’ve done with the place. You haven’t seen it since we moved in,” said Mrs. Wallace.
6. “I’m interested in the job you advertised in yesterday’s newspaper. Is it still available?” a young man asked the manager.
2. Please turn the following dialogue into two passages in the tones of Rose and Tom. Put the direct speech into indirect speech.
Rose: Hello. May I speak to Tom?
Tom: This is Tom speaking.
Rose: What’re you doing tonight?
Tom: Nothing. Why?
Rose: I thought I’d drop by for a drink or two. We haven’t seen each other these days.
Tom: OK. That’s a good idea. What time?
Rose: How about nine?
Tom: That’s a bit late. Why don’t you make it a little earlier?
Rose: All right. How about seven?
Tom: That suits me. Have dinner with us.
Rose: Good. See you at seven.
1) Tom: Rose called and asked if she might speak to me on the line….
2) Rose: Tom answered the phone when I called him. He said he had nothing to do that night and asked me why….
A: Listening comprehension
Listen to the following 3 dialogues very carefully and write down some words describing the persons according to what you have heard on the tape.
The girl is a_____________ from _____________. She has ___________ and ____________.
Miss Nice is ___________ and ______________ and is fond of _____________. She looks ________________ than she is. She is ____________ than the first speaker in the dialogue.
Lily Young is ____________.Her hair is ____________. She is _________ under the tree. She is from __________________.
Listen to Passage 1 and Passage 2 and then fill in the table.
Mr. Dick Height: Hair: Face: Chin:
My new roommate
Situational descriptions for talking
1. Say something about one of your close friends in your own words.
2. Talk about one of your classmates with your partner with about five sentences.
3. Choose some of the following pictures and describe them to your partner(s).
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
1. Work in pairs, first write down something describing your partners on the paper and then make a list of their likes and dislikes, looks and characters.
2. Work in groups, first say something about pets and other animals considered as our friends, and then write a brief description about them by taking some notes.
B: Reading & writing
Task One: Cloze
Read the following passages carefully and fill in the blanks with the words which should match with the meaning of the following passages.
With the help of English Pictorial I have made rapid progress in my English study. I like it so much that I read __1__ (each/all) column of the magazine and have learnt a lot from it. It serves as a __2__ (bridge/way) that leads me into a colorful world of English.
Whatever I was praised for the rapid progress in my English study, I thanked English Pictorial __3__ (from/for) the bottom of my heart. It has also helped me __4__ (improve/progress) my writing. I have looked on English Pictorial __5__ ( as/like) my close friend.
I’ll never forget the __6__ (practice/help) from English Pictorial.
Our English teacher, Miss Albright is the best teacher I have known so far. She has not only treated her students __1__ her younger brothers and sisters, but also does well in her teaching.
She is twenty-six, but she does not look her __2__. She is attractive and delicate. She plays and __3__ with us after class. She is our __4__ as well as our teacher.
She is never tired of helping us in our work, and of course, she is good __5__ her method of teaching because she knows how to help her students to __6__ the best result in the limited time.
Task Two: Read and do
1. Read the following passage carefully and do the following exercises.
No one ever gets bored in the hardware store. There are too many things to look at. But if ever you want to buy something there you must be very careful and write it down beforehand, on a piece of paper, and never, never lose it. Otherwise, the same thing that happened to Mr. Fingle might happen to you.
Everyone knows Mr. Fingle. He is always there. No one pays any attention to him. No one ever asks him what he wants. They know it isn’t of any use. Poor Mr. Fingle!
No matter what time of day you happen to go to the hardware store, there wandering about somewhere among the bins and the barrels and the paint pots and the stoves, you will come upon Mr. Fingle.
If you hear something rustling at your elbow, or see a shadow moving in the dusk of the store, no need to turn around. It is only Mr. Fingle. There he is, a little white mouse of a man, creeping softly about, picking things up, laying them down again, peering here and there in his gentle short-sighted way, and every little while just standing still for a moment, with his finger in his mouth, thinking.
He thinks and he thinks, but all his thinking won’t help him. He can’t remember what he wanted to buy.
Years and years ago Mr. Fingle used to live in the little white house up the road, past the shoe store. He had a front porch and a wife and a lawn mower, just like everybody else, and every morning if it was summer time, you would see him out mowing his front lawn, or if it was winter you would hear him tinkering away somewhere inside the house. For Mr. Fingle had one great passion in life.
He loved to fix things.
What I have talked about above is the story of my friend, Mr. Fingle.
1) Look up the underlined words in the passage in your dictionary and write down the explanations of them on the paper.
2) Describe Mr. Fingle in your own words with about three sentences.
Mr. Fingle is …____________________________________________________
3) Read the passage again and answer the following questions.
(1) What did Mr. Fingle have years ago?
(2)What kind of person do you think Mr. Fingle is?
(3)What does Mr. Fingle prefer to do in his life?
(4) Where did Mr. Finge live years ago?
(5) How do people in the town like Mr. Fingle?
4) Please give some information about Mr. Fingle according to the passage.
(1) What he looks like;
(2) Where he likes to go;
(3) What he does every day in the store;
(4) Where he lived years ago;
(5) What he had of his own years ago;
(6) What he did years ago.
Task Three: Read and write
1. Do you know the following words used in e-mails from time to time? If you know, please give its proper form beside each.
bi bi to u
2. Please write an e-mail back to Carolina after you read her e-mail below.
Date: July 28, 2003 07:01 PM
Address: I'll give my home address to people who send me e-mails, BRAZIL
Education: high school
Languages: English, Portuguese
Hobbies: reading, writing, music
I'm looking for long letter snail mail penpals. Please don't waste your time e-mailing me if you're not into that! I like reading, writing, talking, thinking, languages, philosophy, politics, history, life, being alive, literature, daylight, photographs, laughing, long letters, rock music, Brazil, penpaling. I hate prejudice, fights, animosity. I want female long letter writer new penpals from anywhere but near my age (16-20, or something like that ). E-mail me and I can give you my postal address, or if you can't write first, we'll solve it someway . I'm a very open minded person and love talking. I want pals who are interested in friendship, true friendship, sharing thoughts, experiences, knowledge and everything. Write to me. I'm not looking for romance, I have no money to send, sorry. I'm looking for true long term friendship with any student all over the world.
English around the World
A: Word study
A1: Topic words
If you have a talk with an American and an English at the same time, you, of course, will be puzzled at some words they use. And you will find that they refer to the same thing with different words.
From the following examples you can see some of the differences.
American English British English
can (noun) tin
car (railroad) carriage, van or waggon
Besides different words they prefer to use, they also have different spelling on some words. For example, “colour” is often used by British people while “color” is Americans’ favor.
The following words are examples to show you the different spellings of British English and American English. Read them carefully and pay attention to their differences, and you can add more to the lsit.
British English American English
1. centre center
2. favour favor
3. favourite favorite
4. metre meter
5. neighbour neighbor
Please use another word in the British way instead of the italicized one used in the American way in each of the following sentences.
1. And my office is on the first floor of the World Trade Building on the Fifth Avenue.
2. My aunt works as a saleswoman at a drug-store near my school.
3. July 4th, the U.S. National Day, is a legal-holiday for all the Americans.
4. We’ve got a letter-box in front of my house and I can see the letter-carrier place letters and parcels into it from time to time.
5. Why do you always make your mum mad, David?
6. Mr. Thomason has been sick for many days and he is now staying in hospital.
A3: Tips for word study
Read the following very carefully, you will know something more about American English and British English. After that, place the italicized words into the table below. The first pair has been given to you.
1. In the United States a pressman is a man who runs a printing press; in England he is a newspaper reporter, or, as the English usually says, a journalist.
2. Square, in England, always means a small park. A backyard is a garden. A subway is always a tube, or the underground. But an underground passage for pedestrians is a subway. English streets have no sidewalks; they always call them pavements or foot-paths or simply paths. An automobile is always a motor-car or motor.
3. In the United States a lawyer tries a case and the judge hears it; in England the judge tries it. In the United States the court hands down a decision; in England the court hands it out.
4. Soccer is a form of football that is still relatively little known in the United States. What we call simply football is Rugby or Rugger to the Englishman.
5. In England quite means “completely, wholly, entirely, altogether, to the utmost extent, nothing short of, in the fullest sense, positively, absolutely”; in America it is conditional, and means only “nearly, approximately, substantially”, as in “He sings quite well.”
American English British English
Pressman: a man who runs a printing press Pressman: a newspaper reporter, journalist
1. What is the difference of the word “vest” between American English and British English? If you want know it clearly, please look it up in your dictionary.
2. If a young lady says she doesn’t want to wash the dishes, can you guess where she is from and which English she is speaking?
B1: Useful phrases
1. make oneself at home: feel at home; be at ease
1) If you say to a guest make yourself at home, you are making him feel welcome and inviting him to behave in an informal, relaxed way.
2) Please make yourself at home.
3) It’s very kind of your mother to make us feel at home whenever we pay a visit to her at weekends.
2. in total: the whole, esp. regarded as the complete sum of a number of parts
1) I lived in Beijing for eight years in total when I was young.
2) They had got a force containing in total over half a million men and 11,000 tanks.
3) His house is 120 square meters in total.
3. mother tongue: native language; the language first learned by a child
1) That overseas student says his mother tongue is Spanish.
2) Mary was born in Canada and her mother tongue is French.
3) Though Alice was born in Canada, her mother tongue is Russian.
4. be equal to: having the necessary or adequate strength, ability, means, etc.
1) If someone is equal to a particular job or situation, he has the necessary ability, strength, or courage to deal successfully with it.
2) The number of the students in your class is equal to the number in their class.
3) She was determined that she would be equal to any test the corporation put to her.
5. except for: other than; apart from
1) Everyone passed the exam except for Rory.
2) We had a pleasant time, except for the weather.
3) I know nothing about him except for the fact that he lives next door.
6. stay up: remain out of bed
1) If you stay up, you remain out of bed at a time when most people have gone to bed or at a time when you are normally in bed yourself.
2) I used to stay up late with my mom and watch movies.
3) Please stay up until I come back.
7. come about: to take place; happen
1) When you say how or when something came about, you say how or when it happened.
2) Any possible solution to the Irish question can only come about through dialogue…
3) How did the idea for an arts festival come about?
8. end up (with): to finish (in a particular place or way)
1) If someone or something ends up somewhere, they eventually arrive there, usually by accident.
2) The painting ended up at the State Gallery.
3) You might end up getting something you don’t want….
4) He could have ended up a millionaire if he had been lucky enough.
9. bring in: to introduce; to produce as profits or earnings
1) The government brought in a controversial law under which it could take any land it wanted.
2) I have three part-time jobs, which bring in about 6,000 a year.
3) The firm decided to bring in a new management team.
10. a great many: a lot of; lots of; many
1) You will have a great many to look at here and enjoy yourself in the mall.
2) She has got a great many stamps since 1987.
Complete the following sentences with the phrases learned above and each of them should match the meaning of the sentence.
1. The young actor stepped into the producer’s office and was too nervous to say anything. The producer told him _______________________________.
2. The personal manager has a lot of work to do so he has to ____________ very late in the night.
3. Last autumn Miss Asia attended the Berlin Film Festival and she made __________________ friends there.
4. The writer ______________ her book in a surprising way and it made its readers think a lot after reading it.
5. Mr. Jellyfish was so confident and he never cared when and where anything ____________ before him.
6. Over four hundred years ago, tobacco ___________________ Europe and the Europeans began to smoke since.
7. His elder sister likes everything in the house __________________ the colour of the curtains in the living room.
8. Women were looked down upon in many countries at that time. They could never hope to be __________________ men.
9. In the banana-eating competition a competitor from Malaysia ate up 55 bananas __________.
10. We have got a student from Chili in our class. However, to our surprise, he said that Chinese is ___________________________.
B2: Useful grammatical structures
1. make yourself at home
The structure of “make yourself at home” means “be at one’s ease” or “just act as if you’re in your own house”. Besides this structure, we can also use some others like “be/feel at one’s ease” or “just be at home” and “set somebody feel at ease” to express the same thing in everyday English.
My hostess always made me feel at my ease when I stayed in Canada years ago.
Make yourselves at home and help yourselves to some fruits and soft drinks.
I was at my ease when I had a talk with that old gentleman though he was a big shot at that time.
2. …except for those in Hong Kong, where many people speak English as a first language or a second language.
Difference between “except” and “except for”.
1) The word “except” often shows / introduces somebody or something that isn’t included in the same group or filed. We often use “but not” instead of it. For example:
① Everyone except me got an invitation in my office.
= Everyone got an invitation in my office but I didn’t.
② She is afraid of nothing at all except a spider.
= She is afraid of nothing at all but she is afraid of a spider.
③ I understand everything except why she killed her boss.
= I understand everything but I don’t understand why she killed her boss.
2) The phrase “except for” often shows/ introduces the only thing or person that prevents a statement from being completely true/OK. For example:
① The car you have bought is very nice except for the colour of the handles of the doors.
② The classroom was silent, except for the busy scratching of pens on paper..
③ They have agreed on the project except for some tiny problems in some items.
3) But in modern English, the phrase “except for” is often used as the word “except”. For example:
① We go to school every day except Sunday. We go to school every day except for Sunday.
② He can play all ball games except water polo. He can play all ball games except for water polo.
4) The prepositional phrase can only be used with the word “except” but not the phrase “except for”. For example:
① Those people would like to sleep in the open air, except in the winter.
② I would like to live in any place, except in tombs.
Questions for thinking about:
1. What is the difference between “except” and “besides”?
2. What is the difference between “except” and “but”?
C: Key grammatical items & practice
1. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.
The participial phrase “…communicating in English every day” here is used as part of an adverbial.
1) Usually the logic subject of the participle should be the subject of the sentence. For example:
(1) Seeing his father coming towards him, the little boy ran away as quickly as he could.
(The boy saw his father coming towards him,…)
(2) Having tears in her eyes, the young girl left her aunt’s house without a word.
(The girl had tears in her eyes,…)
2) But in some sentences, a participial phrase can also have its own absolute subject, which is often placed before the participial phrase. This is called an absolute structure. Such structure is mostly used in written English. For example:
(1) It being too late, the old man had to say goodbye to the young couple.
(As it was very late, the old man had to say good bye to the young people..)
(2) Our guide disappearing in distance, all of us stood at the door with tears in our eyes.
(When our guide disappeared in distance, all of us stood at the door with tears in our eyes.)
3) Sometimes we use “with” before the participial phrases.
(1) With her dog leading the way in public, the young lady went across the streets very fast.
(2) The young pianist felt so nervous on the stage with so many eyes fixing on her.
2. “Can you repeat the address, please?” asked Harry.
Harry asked Mrs. Smith if she could repeat the address.
When we put a question (a request) into an indirect speech, we should change the word order of a question into that of a statement though tenses and personals should be changed according to the rules.
3. “Don’t forget to buy me some ketchup on your way back,” Mrs. Smith says to Harry.
Mrs. Smith told Harry not to forget to buy her some ketchup on his way back.
When we put an imperative (a command) into an indirect speech, we should use an indefinite phrase as the structure of indirect speech. If the imperative is a negative one, you should put not before the indefinite structure.
Choose the right word to complete the sentences.
1. With three dogs __________(ran; running) behind him，that old man walked along the narrow, dirty and dim street.
2. The plane ___________(arriving; arrive) late，Mr. and Mrs. Greenwood had to put off their party.
3. With so many people ___________(looking at; looked at) her in the public，the young girl didn’t feel nervous at all and played the piano excellently.
4. It still ___________(was; being) early，we can go to an inn nearby to have a drink.
5. __________(Knowing; Knew) the answer to the problem，little Edison raised his hand.
Put the following requests and commands into indirect speech sentences.
1. “Would you mind my closing the door?” the secretary asked Kobe.
2. “Come here on time next time, Jimmy,” said the school master.
3. “Could you tell me how to get to the World Trade Building, sir?” asked Mrs. Wood.
4. “Don’t spit in public, young man,” said the old man.
5. “Never tell a lie in your life, my dear son,” said Mrs. Diana.
Put the following sentences into English, using except or except for.
A: Listening comprehension
Listen to the following 3 dialogues or short passages carefully and finish the exercises:
In the following passages you can hear some usages of the words which are quite different from what we have learned before. Try your best to write down the exact words while listening to the tape.
In America, a girl preparing for the table is called __________, and if she does some other work in addition, she is called as __________________ or __________, but in England she is called as a girl for ________________ _________________ or ___________ instead.
A person who is called a boarder(搭伙者) in England, is called a __________ in America instead. And once the grave of the tin is empted, the British do not call it a dust-bin but an ________. And a person who carries a dust-bin away is called the ________________ in America but he is called the garbage-man or the ________________ or the __________________ in the UK.
In the UK, when a man is back home, he doesn’t step in upon the ______ floor, but upon the ______ floor. What he refers to as the ________ floor is called the __________ floor in America. In the United States, if a person wants to read a newspaper, people often say he ________ a paper, however, the British prefer to use “ _________ ________ a paper.” The British like to say, “Are there any _____________ for me?” instead of “Is there any __________ for me?”. And they prefer to use ________ man to _________-carrier. Besides, the British would rather have his letter ____________ at a _____________than have it _____________ at a ________________________.
1. Work in pairs. First you need to write down some different words used in American English and British English. After that, exchange yours with your partner’s and work together to make a more complete list.
2. After school, you can surf the internet and search the following internet services (www.english2american.com; www.effingpot.com and www.krysstal.com/ukandusa.html) for the differences between American English and British English in the IT reading room in your own school or at home. After that you can exchange yours with your classmates’.
B: Reading & Writing
B1: Match Column A with Column B, and learn something more about the differences between American English and British English.
Column A Column B
UK word / US word definition
1. full stop / period A. unit of paper currency
2. note / bill B. payment in a restaurant
3. bank holiday / legal holiday C. the business part of a city
4. tick / check D. day when offices are closed
5. trousers / pants E. what men wear over their legs
6. handbag / purse F. the dot at the end of a sentence
7. purse / pocketbook G. large bag carried by females for money
8. pavement / sidewalk H. container carried by females for money
9. bill / check I. the area next to a street where pedestrians walk
10. town centre / downtown J. mark made when something is correct or selected
Read the following passages carefully and fill in the blanks with the words which should match with the meaning of the following passages. The following phrasal verbs (with meanings in paraphrases) are used, some are used more than once:
come into: inherit; get on with: have a good relationship with; cut down: reduce;
give up: stop; be up to: to be doing;
drop in on: visit;
look after: take care of; hold on: to wait on the telephone; get over: recover from;
set off: to leave; come up with: to have an idea; take on: to employ;
tell off (to critisize); take up: to begin a new activity look for: to search for;
make out: to see in the distance, to pretend;
Last year, Jack Peterson found out that he had come into a small fortune after Uncle Fester had passed on. His uncle had been a heavy smoker for many years and hadn't been able to __1__ on his smoking. Jack __2__ Uncle Fester, and often __3__ on him to see what he__4__. One summer, Uncle Fester promised __5__ on his cigarette smoking after having taken 3 months __6__an extremely bad cough. Jack __7__ him in those 3 months and, a number of times, he __8__Uncle Fester. Then he __9__a brilliant idea to make Uncle Fester __10__his nasty habit. He had the local cancer society telephone Uncle Fester. When they called, he told them to __11__and then put Uncle Fester through. They proceeded to __12__that they were looking for a volunteer to __13__to help __14__the patients. Well, that frightened Uncle Fester and he immediately swore to __15__smoking. In fact, Uncle Fester __16__ jogging in order to help him feel better. He even began to __17__other smokers (although he couldn't quite give smoking up himself). One day, as he __18__on his morning run, he __19__a stand in the distance. A new society had turned up that day __20__ people willing to __21__young puppies. Uncle Fester immediately __22__a cute Dalmatian, and ended up in __23__this new responsibility. Now, three years later Jack __24__the "small fortune" which reminded him every day of his wonderful, if not wise, Uncle Fester.
C: Reading comprehension
The desire to use language as a sign of national identity is a very natural one, and as a result language has played a large part in national movements. People have often felt the need to use their own language to show that they are different from the others. This was true when the United States split off from Britain. At that time some patriots even suggested that the Americans should adopt Hebrew or Greek! In the end, as everyone knows, the two countries adopted the practical solution of carrying on with the same language they had used before. For 200 years Britain and the United States have shown the world that political independence and national identity can be complete without losing all the mutual advantages of a common language.
In other words, language is not necessarily the private property of those who use it, just as French is not the private property of French people, nor English of English people. English is spoken as a first language in the United States, in Australia, in New Zealand, in most of Canada, in certain nations of Africa, and in other areas of the world. It is unreasonable to regard any language as the procession of a particular nation, and with no language is it more unreasonable than with English. This is not to say that English is used by a greater number of speakers than any other language, for it is easily outnumbered in this respect by Chinese. But it is the most international of languages. A Dane and a Dutch person meeting in Rome will almost automatically find themselves speaking to each other in English. The pilots of a Russian plane approaching Cairo will use English to ask for landing instructions. Malaysian lecturers use English when addressing their Malaysian students in Kuala Lumpur. To people in Africa, Asia, and South America, English is an important foreign language to master, not merely because it is the language of Britain or the United States, but because it provides ready access to world scholarship and world trade. It is understood more widely than any other language.
It’s true, then, that a great many people-and a great many peoples-are involved in the use of English. Millions of men and women in the four continents have English as their language, and millions in every part of the world use it as their second or foreign language. This gives us some idea of the importance of English, and it shows both the United States and Britain that the language is not the possession of these two nations alone. It is also the property of the Canadian and the Indian, the Australian and the Nigerian. It belongs to all those who use it.
1. Look up the following words in your dictionary and write down the explanations beside each of them.
2. Some countries are mentioned in the following passage. Before you read the passage, try to get some information about those countries and write a briefing after the model.
The United States: One of largest countries in the world, located in the North America with the neighbor Canada at the north, Mexico at the south, and its first language is English.
The United Kingdom:
3. Read the passage again and answer the following questions.
1) What nationalities does the author mention that cannot be identified with a single language? Why can’t they?
2) What two countries have used the same language but enjoyed political independence for over 200 years?
3) What nations are named in which English is spoken as a first language?
4) What language has a greater number of speakers than English?
5) What is the difference, then, in the way English and Chinese are used around the world?
6) People around the world learn English “not merely because it is the language of Britain or the United States.” What is the more important reason for learning English, according to the author?
7) According to the author, to whom does English belong?
4. Supplying missing words
In the following short passage approximately every eight word has been deleted. Reread the first paragraph. Then, without looking back at it, supply the missing words or other words that express the same meaning. Work as quickly as you can. After you finish, refer to the reading to check your answers.
The desire to use language as a _______ of national identity is a very _________ one, and as a result language has _________ a large part in national movements. People ______ often felt the need to use their ______ language to show that they are different _______the others. This was true when the United States _______ off from Britain. At that time some _______ even suggested that the Americans should adopt ________ or Greek! In the end, as everyone _______, the two countries adopted the practical solution _______ carrying on with the same language they ______ used before. For 200 years Britain and the United States have ________ the world that political __________ and national identity can be complete without ________ all the mutual advantages of a common _____________.
1. Work in groups, discussing the following questions and try your best to express yourselves in English.
1) How many language are spoken in your community?
2) What difficulties may result from having more than one official national language? What are the advantages?
2. You have been learning English for over five years now. Try to say something about your own experience of learning English.
1) How do you expect to use English in your life?
2) Has English been useful to you already?
3) Are there other international languages that you think you would find useful too?
Write a composition with no more than 200 words about your own experience of learning English as well as your own ideas about language learning.
A: Word study
Everybody likes traveling around home and abroad if he has got enough money or a lot of time. It’s no doubt that some people prefer to travel by air, some would like to travel by rail, some by water, some by land, of course, some would rather hike. On the other hand, some people pay no attention to their proper behaviors during their journey or trips. Besides adventure traveling and eco-traveling, many people like some other traveling or tours. Look up the following phrases in your own dictionary or say something about them in your own words.
Adventure tour /traveling
Cultural tour / traveling
Eco-tour / traveling
Family adventure tour / traveling
Mountain tour / traveling
Wildlife tour / traveling
Read the following brochures very carefully and get some main ideas about them and have a talk with your partners after that.
Family Adventures Worldwide 2003-2004
Explore Worldwide operates small-group tours in over 100 countries - often in the remotest(faraway) corners of the earth - and is widely recognised as the leading specialist in Adventure travel. There are hundreds of brochures offering family holidays in popular resorts. But what about the many families who have a thirst for Adventure and who want to discover the world as it really is? Well, at Explore we believe we offer just that. Using all the trusted machinery of our 'grown-up' brochure (and the personal experience of those of us with children who appreciate more than just a beach!).
Exodus Destinations 2003
European Destinations have been selected to give a real insight into the landscapes and culture of particular corners of Europe, This simple concept of comfortable accommodation, chosen for character, hospitality and/or position, mixed with the opportunity to explore the attractions of a particular area has proved increasingly popular. There is a wide variety of destination, activity and style of holiday. Small group holidays have a maximum of sixteen plus their own leader; self-led 'go as you please' and fly-drive trips for more independent travel are available to individuals, couples, families and private groups of just about any size.
Africa -Safaris, Overlanding and Discovery 2003/2004
Throughout the brochure we hope you will find the African experience you are looking for - be it an 8-day Kenyan safari visiting some of the most renowned game parks in the world, or a 10 week West African Adventure travelling from Morocco to the coastline of Ghana. With a wide choice of overland Adventures, camping or lodge safaris, cultural journeys and family trips, we cater for everyone. Travelling in a small group with mixed nationalities and backgrounds make having a great time hard to avoid.
Walking & Rambling in Europe's Best Kept Secrets
Great walks and rambles with family run accommodation and local cuisine. With small groups and knowledgeable tour leaders, these tours combine stunning walks with a relaxed atmosphere for the perfect holiday. After a good walk, sit down to wonderful food and a glass of wine before retiring to your comfortable bed. Nothing beats it!
This brochure brings you the real Europe; a different Europe, rich in landscape and heritage, but away from the crowds. Wherever we go it has always been our policy to spend locally. We use guesthouses, inns and other local establishments and try to avoid international hotels and cuisine. Strolling in the hills of Andalucia or hiking in the Alps, we want you to enjoy traditional hospitality and comfort. Our leaders are there with an enthusiasm to share for the places we take you. Come and enjoy some of Europe's best kept secrets the Guerba way!
A once in a lifetime experience! Discover new cultures, experience incredible Adventures. Don't just travel, absorb a different world! Come with us and live West Africa, 16 weeks with a small diverse group of experience seekers. With mountain bikes, all terrain boards and kayaks on a fully prepared expedition vehicle, allowing us to explore, discover and interact with everything around us. Camp under the stars, drink tea with desert nomads, leave with more than just stamps in your passport!
1. What’s the difference between “holiday” and “vacation”?
2. What is the difference between “travel” and “tour” and “trip”? If you don’t know, please look them up in your dictionary?
3. What can’t you do during your traveling or tour? Please make a list of things you can do below.
4. What kind of traveling do you prefer to take besides the tours mentioned in the text?
B1: Useful phrases
1. get away (from): to escape, esp. from the scene, or from being caught
1) The robbers had got away with several bags of money from that bank before the police arrived.
2) We want to get away from the politics of outdated dogmatism.
3) If you get away from it all, you have a holiday in a place that is very different from the place where you normally live and work.
2. watch out: (esp. in giving or reporting orders) to take care
1) Watch out! -- There’s a car coming.
2) If you tell somebody to watch out, you are warning them to be careful, because something unpleasant might happen to them or they might get into difficulties.
3. protect sb. / sth. from / against: to keep safe (from harm, loss etc.), esp. by guarding or covering; to prevent something (something) from being dangerous by separating, covering, etc.
1) He raised his arm to protect his face from the blow.
2) What can women do to protect themselves from heart disease?
3) You should take an umbrella with you and it can protect you from the rain.
4. see sb off: to go to the airport, station, etc., with (someone who is beginning a trip)
1) When you see someone off, you go with them to the station, airport, or port that they are leaving from, and say goodbye to them there.
2) She said that she would see her friend off at the bus station the next morning.
3) Ben had planned a steak dinner for himself after seeing Jackie off on her plane.
5. on the other hand: (used to compare different things or ideas) as one point in the argument / as an opposite point
1) You use on the other hand to introduce the second of two contrasting points, facts, or ways of looking at something.
2) I know this job of mine isn’t much, but on the other hand I don’t feel tied down.
3) On the one hand, if the body doesn’t have enough cholesterol, we would not be able to survive. On the other hand, if the body has too much cholesterol, the excess begins to line the arteries.
6. as well as: in addition to (being)
1) He came as well as his brother.
2) He was kind as well as sensible.
3) It is in his best interests as well as yours.
1. on the other hand
a) Besides using on the other hand in the sentence, you also can on the other hand in an earlier sentence to introduce the first part of the contrast.
b) As we know, on the other hand has the same meaning as but or however, furthermore, it can be used with on the one hand either together in a sentence or separately.
2. as well & as well as
a) You use as well when you mention something which happens in the same way as something else already mentioned, or which should be considered at the same time as something else already mentioned.
b) You use as well as when you want to mention another item connected with the subject you are discussing.
Complete the following sentences with the phrases learned above and each of them should match the meaning of the sentence.
1. The dancer on the stage dances smoothly _________________ attractively.
2. It rained dogs and cats last night, ____________ it does little help to the area here in the desert.
3. That naughty boy ______________ as quickly as he could when he saw his father coming towards him at the corner of the street.
4. All of us should do our best to __________ those precious birds here ______ ________ killed.
5. I was about to put my head out of the bus the time the conductor shouted to me, “______ ______!”
6. “Sorry, I won’t be at the meeting tomorrow morning because I have to _____ Mr. Nice ______ at the harbor,” said Miss Wendy.
C. Key grammatical structures & practice
1. Many of today’s travelers are looking for an unusual experience and adventure travel is becoming more and more popular.
Sometimes we can use the present continuous tense to express the durational aspect of the event for some single events, which in any case involves a limited time-span. Read the following examples.
1) She is looking forward to her son’s arrival next week.
2) ---Supper is ready, Susan.
---I ’m coming, Mum. And I have a last word to write.
3) Mr. Wood is going on his business trip to Japan in a week.
Besides, the present continuous tense also can express the actions of the present, putting emphasis on the limited duration of the state of affairs. Read some more examples as the following.
1) If you are looking for more excitement, you may want to try whitewater rafting.
2) They are living in a rented house.
3) More and more tourists from other countries are coming to China these years.
2. Miss Albright is going with me to Tibet.
From the sentence above we can learn that the present continuous tense is often used for plans in the near future. This is a common expression in spoken English. Read the coming sentences below.
1) How is she getting there by herself?
2) I wonder how long you are staying in Toronto next time.
3) Michael is taking dancing lessons this winter.
Questions for thinking about some special use of the present continuous tense
1. What does the present continuous tense express when the word “always” or “all the time” is used the sentence?
2. What’s the difference between the following two sentences?
She is dancing on the square when we are out to work in the morning.
She is always dancing on the square when we are out to work in the morning.
3. What other use does the present continuous tense have in English? If you know, please tell your partner or your classmates.
Complete the following sentences with the phrases including off.
1) Mr. Blare _____________________(离开) the football team for months.
2) His father said that he decided to _____________(戒) smoking.
3) Everybody should ______________(脱掉)his hats before he steps into the concert hall.
4) The little boy was so thirsty that he _____________ (饮尽) a glass of water at one draft.
5) They didn’t _____________ (下车)until the bus stopped completely.
6) The girl ______________(掰下) a piece of bread stealthily before her mother saw her.
7) A few minutes later, that group of soldiers _____________(转到) into a path to the forest.
8) Sorry, I’m late today because I had to ________ my nephew____ (送行)at the port this morning.
9) Sales in this shop ________________(下降) during the time of SARS.
10) Look out! It’s dangerous here and you’d better ______________(切勿靠近) this building.
Fill in the blanks with the correct words.
trip, travel, tour, journey, hike, sightseeing, vacation, holiday, transportation, means, way
1) If you _________, you go for a long walk in the country.
2) A __________ is a period of time during which you relax and enjoy yourself away from home.
3) A ____________ is a day when people do not go to work or school because of a religious or national festival.
4) Business managers are focused on increasing their personal wealth by any available _________.
5) If you do some ________________, you ____________ around some visiting the interesting places that tourists usually visit.
6) A ____________ is an organized ___________ that people such as musicians, politicians, or theatre companies go on to several different places, stopping to meet people or performance.
7) When people are ____________ on a tour, you can say that they are on __________.
8) There is an express service from Paris which completes the _______ to Berlin in under 8 hours.
9) ______________ refers to any type of vehicle that you can _________ in or carry goods in.
10) You’d better ______________ to Helsinki by air tomorrow.
11) On Thursday all of my students went out on a day __________ with me.
12) She would say she was going my _________ and offer me a lift.
Put the following sentences into English.
A: Listening comprehension
Listen to the coming three short passages and write down the missing words according to what you have heard.
Max, at the age of _______ and Willie, _______ years old, joined Team ___________ crew members and Skip Novak on _________ his vessel, Pelagic. They spent five ___________ on board Pelagic as they explored the Antarctic Peninsula(半岛) and the Southern reaches of the __________ oceans. While on board they transmitted ___________ and images to their schools and ___________ reports on their Adventure website.
Team Adventure continued its __________ adventures by sailing the "Route of Discovery". The ____________ first taken by Christopher Columbus was Team Adventure's course on its ________ to the Americas. While not under the pressure of racing _____________, the voyage was a perfect opportunity to ___________ the idea of a floating classroom. With the _______ of our Monster.com, Team Adventure _______ two teachers through an international _______________; Janet Bradley, teacher of English and Media Studies at Bridgemary Community School in Gosport, Hampshire, UK and Susie Rieck, teacher and _____________ at John Burroughs Middle School in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Susie and Janet were able to communicate with their own ___________ and others through e-mail and daily web postings.
Team Adventure is now in Rhode Island on the hard. We are currently waiting for __________ to begin and hope to get the boat back _____________ soon.
The continuing effort of all our supporters and __________ is making it possible to continue the Team Adventure ________. We have 40,000 ___________ of sailing behind us with many records to be broken __________. We push on and hope to get back to sailing in 2003. Thanks ___________ to everyone with special thanks to Halsey Herreshoff, Commander in __________ and William P. Knowles, Director of Operations at the Herreshoff Museum / Americas Cup Hall of Fame for all their ______.
1. After listening to the three short passages above and read them again carefully, discuss with your partner what kind of journey all these passages talk about.
2. Suppose you will join one of team adventure courses organized by your students’ union. Work in groups, make a plan with your partners for your adventure course. Please write down what preparation you should make and how to arrange your course. And show your own ideas before others in class.
1. Read the following passage carefully enough and select the correct word for each blank which should matching the meaning of the passage.
If you read this, it means our Book, PM-post __1__ (worked / started). Well we thought Geelong was not __2__ (that / rather) big, but as a matter of fact, it is quite big but __3__(still / also) very nice.
This morning we decided to take a __4__(bath /shower) with the Solar Shower bag we bought on Monday from Super Cheap in Melbourne. It is one of those thick __5__(paper / plastic) bags which can __6__ (hold / support) till 20 ltrs, one side is black and the other one transparent. It's got a hole on the __7__ (lower / upper) side to fill it with water and a kind of __8__ (mini / big) shower underneath like form tube. As it is not hot enough __9__ (inside / outside) (now is winter in Australia) we had to heat the __10__ ( tube / water) ourselves.
2. Fill in the blanks with the given words in their right forms.
( get, have, hang, leave, look, park, rent, require, see, decide)
To get the thick plastic bags may __1__ a bit of practice, the thing is that it is quite heavy to __2__ the bag and you don't put inside much water, you don't __3__ much from it. On the other side it is cheap, you __4__ a shower for $8.95.
After having an oat breakfast and __5__ we did not get any park fine, on the lucky day (we have slept since yesterday in a __6__ area where you are suppose to pay from 9.a.m. to 5 p.m., we get up at 10 a.m. and __7__ the place at about 11.30 a.m.).
We __8__ to go to the library today, as we are __9__ for some books about Australia and we thought we could find them here. The library is quite in the center of the city and it is quite big. You are even able to __10__ recent DVD's for $2.20 a week if you are a member. They also offer free internet access in their around 10 computers.
C: Reading comprehension
Since time immemorial, the mighty Himalayas have attracted many adventurers, tourists and geographers with different aims and objectives. Some came here to reaffirm the powerful strength of their bodies and minds by climbing the highest range while some came to study the mysterious formation and some were here to just experience the majestic(=greatest) Himalayan panorama.
Himalayan Mountain stretches from India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet. It has 10 highest peaks of the world, out of which 8 are the part of Nepalese Himalayas.
Five major mountains that form the main chunk of the Himalayan Mountains are K2 (Austin Godwin), Nanga Parbat Peak, Mount Everest, Annapurna and Kanchenjunga.
Mount Everest is mainly located in Nepal and Tibet and in Nepal it is known as Sagarmatha & as Chomolangma in Tibet. From sea level, it measures up till 8,850 m (29,035 ft). It lies between 8655'40" E Longitude to 2759'16" N, Latitude. Mount Everest is just one of the 30 peaks in the Himalayas that are over 24,000 feet high.
Himalaya is a Sanskrit word meaning, "abode of snow", which is so true. The snowfields which dominate many of the peaks in the Himalayas are perman