Step 1 Introduction
Step 2 Main content
例 1 In Greece, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly left their houses, but they____ (allow) to attend weddings and some festivals.
allowed；由had, left可知be是一般过去式；主语是复数they，be的过去式是were，答案是were allowed。
例 2 The ____ why I was sad was that he didn't understand me.
例3 It was ___(笨拙的) to use as one of the points of reference was the moving ship itself.
例4 Several changes have brought wild animals to the . Foremost, air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts…
例5 I should have known when to hold fast and when to let go, which can help me avoid __ (feel) great pressure and upset.
例6 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, (reach) a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4.
例7 It would be _____ (believe) that such an honest fellow
should have betrayed his friends!
Step 3 Explanation and deduction
Eric Clapton is one of the most __36_(success) rock stars of alltime. He has sold millions of copies of his records_37______ has
appeared in concerts all over the world.
Clapton was born in 1945 in a small town, __38__ is near London. When he was only two years old, his mother left him. Eric was brought __39__ by his grandparents. Until he was nine he believed that they were his parents and it was __40__ terrible shock when he found out that they weren't. But his grandparents treated him well. They paid for him _41_(go) to art college. __42___ Eric had already become interested in music and he started
playing the guitar in bars and clubs.
Clapton first became famous when he started a group __43__ (call) Cream. Not only __44 he play the guitar and sing but also he could write excellent songs. But while on stage he was the brilliant guitar-playing superstar, his private life was falling apart. __45_ his marriage broke off, he started taking drugs.
36. successful 37. and 38. which 39. up 40. a
41. to go 42. but 43. called 44. could45. After
39. 当他两岁的时候，他妈妈就离开了他。Eric当然是由爷爷奶奶抚养长大。因此我们填brought up. 此处是被动语态。
40. 当他了解到他们不是（他的父母亲时），那是一个非常糟糕的打击。shock 在这里是抽象名词具体化，因此用不定冠词a.
41. 但是爷爷奶奶对他很好，他们出钱让他去美术学院。Pay for sb. to do sth.
43. 他创办了一个名叫Cream 的乐队，由此就成名了。a group 和call 之间是动宾关系，因此我们填called，过去分词短语做后置定语。.
A proverb says, “Time is money”. But in my opinion, time is even 1 precious than money. Why? 2 when money is spent, we can earn it back. However, when time is 3 , it will never return.
4 is known to all that the time we can use is limited.
Therefore we should make 5 use of our time to study hard so as to serve our country in 6 future.
But it is a pity that there are a lot of people 7 do not realize the value of time. They 8 ___ their precious time smoking, drinking and playing.
In a word, we should form the good habit of 9 (save) time. Do not put off what can be done today 10 tomorrow.
第7题，因there are…是个句子，do not…应是一个定语从句，缺主语，先行词是人，应填who。
语篇是指比单个句子长的语言单位（句群、段落、篇章等）。语篇间往往有标明内在联系的词，我们称这些词为“语篇标志词”。如表示结构层次的有first, second, third, finally等；表示逻辑关系的有thus，therefore，so等；表示转折关系或变换话题的有however, but, by the way等。“语篇标志词”对迅速理清文章的脉络，弄清上下文关系很有帮助。
熟练掌握一些常见的词组，如as a matter of, be proud of, by the way, come from, congratulate…on…, devote…to…, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind等，对解题很有帮助。
第6题，表示“在将来”是固定词组in the future。
就是根据一些常用的句型搭配，如so/such…that…, it is…(for sb.) to do sth., There is no doubt that…, there is no sense in doing sth.等来解题。
指根据某些词语在用法上的特殊搭配来解题。如下列各类动词必须牢记：只能接动词的-ing形式作宾语的动词，只能接to do作宾语的动词，接to do作补语的动词，接do作补语的动词，接doing或done作补语的动词，对句式搭配要求较为特别的词语，等等。
第8题，由time smoking可想到是spend time (in) doing句型，这是由spend的用法特别所决定的；这里是一般现在时，主语是复数，填spend。
如After the flood Mr. Deng was as poor as a church_______.
这句话的意思是“水灾后邓先生一贫如洗了”。as poor as a church mouse（一贫如洗），所以此处填mouse。
又如Nobody wants to go out, for it is raining cats and ______ now.
这句话的意思是“因为外面大雨滂沱，没有人想出去”。It rains cats and dogs.是“大雨滂沱”之意，故此处填dogs。
Experiments have proved that children can  (instruct)in swimming at a very early age. At a special swimming pool in Los Angeles, children become expert at  their breath under water even before they can walk.  of two months old do not appear to be reluctant to enter the water. It is not long  they are so accustomed to swimming  they can pick up weights from the floor of the pool. A game that is very popular with these young  (swim) is the underwater tricycle race. Tricycles are lined up on the floor of the pool seven feet under water. The children compete against each other to reach the other end of the pool.
Many pedal their tricycles,  most of them prefer to push or drag them. Some children  (情态动词)cover the whole length of the pool  (介词)coming up for breath even once. Whether they will ever become future Olympic champions, only time will
tell. Meanwhile, they should encourage  (代词) among us who cannot swim five yards before they are gasping for air.
1. be instructed 因instructed与children是动宾关系，要用被动语态，即“be+动词的过去分词”，情态动词后用动词原形。
2. holding 由under water可知是“屏住气”，固定搭配hold one’s breath；又因在介词(at)后要用动词的-ing形式。
3. Babies 由上下文可知是指“二个月大的婴儿”，baby的复数是变y为i再加es。
4. before 因it is not long before…(不久以后就)是固定句型。
5. that 因为so…that…(如此……以致……)是固定句型。
6. swimmers 由with可知，后接的是名词，又由young和句意可知是指人，即“游泳者”，且为复数。
7. but 前后是转折关系。
8. can 由语境可知空格单词意思为“能够”。
10. those 由语境，特别是among us和后面的who引导的定语从句可知，指“那些人”。
Step 4 Homework and consolidation exercises
[主旨]这是一篇故事。作者讲述自己驱车在赶往the Taiyetos Mountains的半路上，在一个穷乡僻壤的山村附近，汽车却意外得出了毛病，适值太阳正要落山，正在进退两难之际，作者被一群乐于助人而又好客的村民相救的难忘经历。
题号 赋分 答案 注解（此栏为本文作者添加）
31 1.5分 broke 原文提供原形动词break
32 1.5分 who 宾语从句引导词
33 1.5分 as 介词
34 1.5分 settled 原文提供原形动词settle
35 1.5分 a
36 1.5分 where 状语从句引导词
37 1.5分 Other
38 1.5分 merrily 原文提供形容词原级merry
39 1.5分 for 介词
40 1.5分 her 定语从句的宾语
I was on my way to the Taiyetos Mountains. The sun was setting when my car 31(break) down near a remote and poor village. Cursing my misfortune, I was wondering where I was going to spend the night when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to 32 should have the honor of receiving me 33 a guest in their house. Finally, I accepted the offer of an old woman who lived alone in a little house. While she was getting me 34 (settle) into a tiny but clean room, the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to 35 small town some 20 kilometres away 36 there was a garage.
I had noticed three hens running free in my hostess's courtyard and that night one of them ended up in a dish on my table. 37 villagers brought me goat's cheese and honey. We drank together and talked 38 (merry) till far into the night. When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the old woman 39 the trouble I had caused 40 .
从答案形式来分析，原文提供三个词供考生变化（31题的break, 34题的settle, 38题的merry），两个须填理解句子成分的从句引导词（32题的who, 36题的where），两个需要理解上下文才能填的代词（37题的Other, 40题的her），两个接近于是固定搭配的介词（33题的as, 39题的for），关键在于理解句意。
In the United States, there were 222 people ____1____ (report) to be billionaires(亿万富翁) in 2003. The __2_of these is Bill Gates, worth at least $ 41billion, who made his money ____3___starting the company Microsoft. Mr. Gates was only 21 years old ___4_he first helped to set up the company in 1976. He was a billionaire __5__the time he was 31. __6_, there are still some other people who have made lots of money at even ___7__(young) ages. Otheryoung people who have struck it rich include Jackie Coogan and Shirley Temple. ___8_ of these child actors made over a million dollars ___9____ (act) in movies before they were 14. But ___10___ youngest billionaire is Albert von Thurn und Taxis of Germany, who, in 2001, inherited (继承) a billion dollars when he turned 18!
Finishing their shopping at the mall, a couple discovered that their new car ____1_____ (steal) .They filed a report____2____ thepolice station and a detective drove them ____3___ to the parking lot to look for evidence. To their ____4____ (amaze), the car had been returned ___5_ there was a note in it that said: “I apologize for taking your car. My wife was having a baby and I had to rush her to the__6__. Please forget the inconvenience. There are two tickets ____7____ tonight's Mania Twain concert.” Their faith in humanity restored. The couple attended ____8____ concert. But when they returned home, they immediately found ____9_____ their house had been ransacked (洗劫). On the bathroom mirror was ____10_ note: “I have to put my kid through college somehow, don't I?”
People __1__(live) in different countries made different kinds of words. Today there are about fifteen hundred __ 2_ in the world. Each contains many thousands of words. A very large dictionary, for example, contains four ___3_ five hundred thousand words. But we do not need ____4___ these. To read short stories you need to know only about two thousand words. ____5___ you leave school, you will learn only one thousand or more. The words you know are called your vocabulary. You should try to make your vocabulary ______6__ (big). Read as many books as we can. There are a lot of books _____7____ (write) in easy English. You will enjoy them. When you meet _____8__ new word, look it ____9____ in your dictionary. Your dictionary is your _____10_____ (much) useful book.
When you are in England you must be very careful in the streets ____1____ the traffic drives on the left. Before you cross a street you must look to the right first _2___ then the left. In the morning and in the evening when people go to or come from __3____, the streets are very busy. Traffic is most ___4___ (danger) then. When you go by bus in England, you have to be careful, ____5____. Always remember the traffic moves on the left. So you must be careful. _____6____ (have) a look first, or you will go ____7____ wrong way. In many English cities, there are big buses ____8_____ two floors. You can sit on the ______9____ (two) floor. From ____10_____ you can see the city very well. It’s very interesting.
__1 artist had a small daughter. Sometimes he painted women ___2__ any clothes on, and he and his ____3___ always tried to keep the small girl out____4___ he was doing this, “She is ____5_____ young to understand,” they said. But one day, when the artist ____6____ (paint) a woman with no clothes on, he forgot to lock the door, and the girl suddenly ran into the room. He mother ran up the stairs ___7__ her, but when she got to the room, the little girl was already in the room and looking at the woman. _____8___ her parents waited for her to speak. For a few seconds the little girl said ____9____, but then she ran to her mother and said ____10_____ (angry), “Why do you let her go about without shoes and socks on when you don’t let me?”
Most Americans don’t like to get advice ____1___ members of their family. They get advice from “_2___(strange)”. When they need advice, they don’t usually go to people they know. __3_ many of them write letters to newspapers and magazines ___4 give advice on many different subjects ____5___ (include) family problems, the use of language, health, cooking, child care, clothes, ____6___ even on how to buy a house or a car. Most newspapers ____7__ (regular) print letters from readers with problems. Along with the letters there are ____8_ written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems. Some of these writers are doctors, ____9____ are lawyers or educators. But two of the most famous writers of advice are women without special ____ 10___ (train) for this kind of work.
Without proper planning, tourism can cause_____1____. For example, too many tourists can crowd public places ___2____ are also enjoyed by the inhabitants(居民) of a country. If tourism create too much traffic, the inhabitants will become ___3__ (annoy) and unhappy. They begin to dislike tourists __4__ to treat them impolitely. They forget how much tourism can help the country’s economy. _____5____ is important to think about the people of a destination country and ___6__ tourism affects them. Tourism should help__7__ country keep the customs and beauty that attracts tourists. Tourism should also advance the wealth and ___8_____ (happy) of local inhabitants. Too much tourism can be a problem. If tourism __9__ (grow) too quickly, people must leave other jobs to work____10_____ the tourism industry. This means that other parts of the country’s economy can suffer.
Why is setting goals so ______1____? Because goals can help you do, be, and experience everything ____2____ you want in life. Instead ___3____ just letting life happen to you, goals allow ____4_____ to make your life happen. ____5_____ (success) and happy people have sets lots of goals to help them reach their aims. By setting goals you aretaking control of your life. It’s __6___ having a map to show you ____7____ you want to go. Winners in life set goals and follow through with them. Winners decide what they want in life and then get there by making plans and _____8___ (set) goals. Unsuccessful people just let life happen by accident. Goals aren’t difficult to set, and ____9____aren’t difficult to reach. It is up to you to find out what your goals really are. You are ___10_one who must decide what to do and in what direction to aim your life.
(1) 1 reported 2 richest/wealthiest 3 by 4 when 5 by
6 However 7 younger 8 Both 9 acting 10 the
(2) 1 had been stolen 2 at 3 back 4 amazement 5 and
6 hospital 7for 8 the 9 that 10 another
(3) 1 living 2 languages 3 or 4 all 5 Before 6 bigger
7 written 8 a 9 up 10 most
(4) 1 because 2 and 3 work 4 dangerous 5 too 6 Have
7 the 8 with 9 second 10 there
(5) 1 An 2 without 3 wife 4 when/while 5 too
6 was painting 7 after 8 Both 9 nothing 10 angrily
(6) 1 from 2 strangers 3 Instead 4 that/which 5 including 6 and 7 regularly 8 answers 9 others 10 training
(7) 1 problems 2 that/which 3 annoyed 4 and 5 It
6 how 7 a 8 happiness 9 grows 10 in
(8) 1 important 2 that 3 of 4 yourself 5 Successful
6 like 7 where 8 setting 9 they 10 the
Elephants are the biggest animals ___1____ live on land. Some whales are bigger than elephants ___2___ whales live in the sea. When ___3____ (bear), a baby elephant ____4___ (weigh) about 91 kilograms. That is the weight of a ___5___ (grow) man. It is about 91 cm high. At the age of six, it is about 183 cm high. It is not until it reaches the age of 12 that it ___6___ growing. It may be 320 cm high. African elephants are bigger than Indian elephants. African elephant have much bigger ears. Elephants have very long noses ___7____ we call trunks. Elephants have longer noses than any ____8___ animal. The elephant can use ___9___ trunk to smell things and it can pick up things ____10___ the tip of its trunk. The tip of its trunk can be used like a hand. Can you do that like an elephant?
1.that 2 but 3 born 4. weighs 5 grown
6 stops 7 which 8. other 9. its 10 with
If the population of the Earth keeps on ____1____ (increase) at its present rate, there will ____2____ (event) not be enough resources left to support life on the planet. By the middle of the 21st century, if present trends continue, we ____3____ (use up) all the oil that drives our cars, for example. Even if scientists develop new ways of feeding the human race, the crowded conditions on Earth will make it ____4___ for us to look for open somewhere else. But ___5___ of the other planets in our solar system are capable of supporting life at present. One possible solution to the problem, ___6___, has recently been suggested by an American scientist, Professor Carl Sagan. Sagan believes that ____7____ the Earth’s resources are completely ____8____(exhaust) it will be possible to change the atmosphere of Venus and ___9___ create a new world almost as large as Earth itself. Something is difficult. Venus is much hotter than the Earth. ___10___, there is only a tiny amount of water there.
1. increasing 2 eventually 3 will have used up 4 necessary 5 none
6. however 7 before 8 exhausted 9 so/therefore 10. Besides
On the coast of Cuba ___1___ an old fisherman. He was thin and had many deep lines in the back of his neck. His skin was very brown, and his ___2___ were marked by pulling heavy fish at the end of ropes. But all these marks were old. Every part of him seemed old ____3___ his eyes. These were cheerful and the same color ___4___the sea. For 84 days the old man did not catch any fish. People said that he was ___5___(luck). ___6____the old man still loved the sea. He was still strong and a good fisherman. On the 85th day the old man sailed farther out to the sea than ___7___ of the other boats. He sailed to ___8___ the water was very deep. Then he felt fishing-line ___9____(pull）gently by a big fish which ___10___(swim) very deep in the water.
1. lived 2. hands 3. except 4 as 5. unlucky
6 But 7. any 8. where 9. being pulled 10. was swimming
Dolphins ____1____（become） a popular attraction at zoos in recent years. They are more interesting than lions and tigers ___2____ they are livelier and perform tricks, like circus animals. But ____3____（连词）they are more willing to cooperate with the trainer than other mammals in captivity, they get bored if they ___4___ (ask) to do the same trick twice. This is one reason ___5___ believing that they are very intelligent.
Dolphins are regarded as the friendliest creatures in the sea and stories of them helping ____6___(drown) sailors have been common ___7___ Roman times. We now have more reliable evidence of their ___8___ (use) than sailors’ tales. In South Africa, two dolphins have been trained to help swimmers ___9___ difficulties and drive sharks___10___ from the beach.
1. have become 2 because 3. although/though 4 are asked 5. for
6 drowning 7 since 8. usefulness 9 in 10 away
Is it possible for people to live on Venus in the future?
____1___ the experiments are successful, life will become possible there. ___2___ it will not be pleasant at first. ___3____ they go to Venus, the first colonists will have to take plenty of water with them and get used to days and nights ___4___ (last) 60 earth-days. But there will also be some ____5___. The colonists will live longer because their hearts will suffer ___6___ strain than on earth. ____7_____ that, they will be exploring a new world while ___8___ still on earth are living in closed, uncomfortable conditions. Perhaps, it will be the ___9____ way to ensure the ___10___(survive) of the human race.
1 If 2 But 3 When 4. lasting 5 advantages
6 less 7 Apart from/ Besides 8 those 9. only 10 survival
Increasingly, over the past 10 years, people---especially young people---have become aware of the need ____1____（change）their eating habits, ___2___ some of the food they eat, particularly ____3___(process) foods, is not good for health. Therefore , there has been a growing interest in ___4___(nature) foods: foods ___5___ chemical additives and unaffected by chemical fertilizers, widely used in ___6____(farm）today.
It is significant ___7____ nowadays fiber is considered to be an important part of a healthy ___8___. In white bread, for example, the fiber has been removed. But it is present in unrefined flour and of course in vegetables. It is interesting to note that in countries ____9____ the national diet contains large quantities of unrefined flour and vegetables, certain diseases are comparatively rare. Hence the emphasis ___10____ (place) on the eating of wholemeal bread and more vegetables by modern experts on ‘health eating’.
1. to change 2 because 3 processed 4 natural 5 without
6. farming 7. that 8. diet 9. where 10. is placed
Natural foods, for example, are vegetables, fruits and grains grown in soil ____1___ is rich in organic matter. In simple terms, this means that the soil has been nourished ___2___ unused vegetable matter, which provides it with essential vitamins and minerals. ___3___ in itself is a natural process compared with the use of chemicals and fertilizers, the main purpose of ___4___ is to increase the amount---but not the ___5____ ---of foods ___6___ (grow) in commercial farming areas. Natural foods, scientists believe, are healthier and safer.
Natural foods also include animals which have been allowed to feed and move freely in healthy pastures. Compare this with ___7___ happens in the mass production of poultry: there are battery farms, for example, where thousands of chickens live crowded together in one building and ___8____(feed) on food which is little ___9___ than rubbish. Chickens kept in this way are not only ___10___(taste) as food; they also produce eggs which lack important vitamins.
1. that 2. by 3 This 4 which 5 quality
6 grown 7 what 8 are fed 9. better 10. tasteless
The Second World War came in 1939. It was the war more than ____1___ else which _____2_____（quick）the development of plastics. Scientists all over the world worked harder than they _____3____ (work) before. Plastics and plastic fibers were needed by every wartime department. So it was largely ___4____ the wartime ___5____ we have so many different plastic materials today.
But will the spread of plastics mean the end of natural materials? One day, perhaps, ____6___ might happen. Artists as well as manufacturer are now working with plastics. ____7___ many people still prefer the look and feel of natural materials. The trouble with plastics is ___8____they are ---at the moment---too perfect. Their surfaces are too smooth. Two plastics ____9___ come from the same mould look exactly the same. But two objects made of wood ___10___ look quite the same, even if they have been made by machines in a factory.
1. anything 2. quickened 3 had worked 4. because of / thanks to / owing to 5 that 6 this 7. But 8. that 9. which 10. never
It is not likely ___1____ plastic fibers will ever completely take the place of natural fibers. Materials made of plastic fibers are not quite as beautiful to look at ___2___as silk, or quite as soft as wool – at least, not yet. ___3___, clothes made of pure plastic fibers do not ‘breathe’ ___4___ clothes made of natural materials --- at least, not yet! They make the ___5____(wear) feel hot and sticky. ____6___ cloth manufacturers now usually mix cotton or wool with the plastic fibers.
Perhaps we could call ____7___ the Plastic Age. Certainly more and better plastics ___8____（make）in the future. The Germans have manufactured a car which is almost completely made of plastics. The famous British engine builders, Rolls Royce, have produced an aero plane engine, made mostly of plastics. But it is nice to know ___9____for a long time ___10___ (come) sheep will continue to give us their wool, and that the cotton pickers will continue to sing their songs under the sun in the cotton fields.
1. that 2 as 3. Besides 4. like 5. wearer
6. Therefore/So 7. this 8. will be made 9. that 10. to come
Sports help people to live happily. They help to keep people healthy and feeling good. ____1___ they are playing games, people move a lot. ____2___ is good for their health. ____3____（have） fun with their friends makes them happy. Many people enjoy sports by watching others play. In small town, crowds meet ____4____（watch）the bicycle races ___5___ the soccer games. In the big cities, thousands buy tickets to see a baseball game and an ice-skating show
What are your favorite sports? Is the climate hot ____6___ you live? Then swimming is probably one of your sports. Boys and girls in China love to swim. There are wonderful beaches along the seashore and there are beautiful rivers and lakes across the country. The weather is also good ___7___ swimming. Or do you live in ___8___ cold climate? Then you would like to ski. Here are many skiers in Austria where ____9___ are big mountains and cold winters. Does it train often ____10____ you live? Then kite flying would not be one of your sports. It is one of favorite sports of Thailand.
1. When 2. This 3 Having 4 to watch 5 or
6 where 7. for 8 a 9 there 10 where
There is one holiday in the year, which is completely American, Thanksgiving Day. It is the day ___1___ everyone goes back home to spend the day ___2___ his family.
___3___ is a story of Thanksgiving Day and of one’s efforts to carry on these traditions. Old Pete took his seat this day on his usual bench in Union Square. Every Thanksgiving Day for nine years Pete ____4___ (take) this same seat exactly at one o’clock, and each time the same pleasant thing had happened. ___5___ this time Pete had come here ___6___ from habit than from hunger.
Certainly today Pete was not hungry. He had just had a dinner so enormous that he could ____7___ breathe. The buttons on his ragged shirt and coat were about ___8___ (burst). He was ___9___ full of soup, oysters, roasters, roast turkey, apple pie, ice cream and a dozen other rich foods that the November breeze and the first light fall of snow ___10___(feel) cool and pleasant to his face.
1. when 2. with 3. This 4. had taken 5. But
6. more 7. hardly 8. to burst 9. so 10 felt
Can you believe it? There’s a world paper shortage, there’s a national bottle shortage, and we’re running out of raw materials ___1___ timber and tin---or so the papers say. Well. I’ve just ___2___(empty) my shopping basket after my weekly shopping trip and it was full of things made from these scarce materials. Half of ___3___ I’d bought I threw away at once: all those ___4___(necessary) paper bags, plastic bags, fresh wrapping paper and old newspapers they put the food in nowadays.
You can’t ___5___ buy a loaf of bread without getting a piece of paper round it---that’s if you can find a loaf ___6___ hasn’t already been sliced and then wrapped. Supermarkets are the worst offenders. Pieces of meat are put on small plastic trays and ___7___ wrapped in polythene; cartons of cream are put in extrapaper bags at the checkout point, fruit and vegetables ___8___(pack) in plastic bags, cheese is sold ___9___(wrap) in polythene and eggs come in special cardboard ___10___ plastic boxes. Some things are double-packed by the maker: tins of fish come in small cardboard boxes, breakfast cereals are packed in plastic bags inside cardboard containers.
1. like 2. emptied 3. what 4. unnecessary 5. even
6. that 7. then 8. are packed 9. wrapped 10. or
One day in 1848 a carpenter named Marshall, ___1__（引导词） worked in a saw mill on the American River in California, made a remarkable discovery. He noticed some bight yellow particles in the water, bent down to ___2__ them ___2___（动词短语） and took them to his partner, a Mr. Sutter. ___3___(代词) was the beginning of the Californian Gold Rush. Sutter was a Swiss. The man had come to America some years earlier to make his fortunate（4合并为一个句子）. The governor of California had given him permission to found ___5____(冠词) settlement in the Sacramento Valley and his ___6____（determine的派生词） and energy had made him rich. He had built the mill in partnership with Marshall ___7____ (make的正确形式) use of the abundant natural resources of his land.
The news spread across America to Europe and thousands of people joined in search. Those which went by ship had to sail round Cape Horn to reach California but some chose the overland route across America and wagon trains were formed for travelers to make the journey（8改正错误）. Even then there were some who _____9______ (prepare的时态) to cross the terrible desert of Death Valley in order to reach the gold a few days ___10____（介词）the rest.
1. who 2 pick up 3 This
4 Sutter was a Swiss, who had come to America some years earlier to make his fortunate. 5. a
6 determination 7 to make 8 which ---who 9 were prepared 10 before
During World War II some men made a ship of ice. They wanted it to carry planes. This idea coming from the Eskimos who sometimes froze thick pieces of Arctic plants into the ice which they used to build their ice houses(1改正错误). _______（2代词）plant material greatly increased the strength of the ice blocks. It also prevented them from melting early in the spring.
During the early days of World War Ⅱ, the British and Americans tried mixing crushed wood material from paper mills with water and freezing it. It was very strong，they found.（3合并句子） A stick of this ____4____ (用strengthen适当的派生词填空) ice and inch thick would support the weight of six men. A sheet four inches thick would ______ a shot ____（5短语动词）a gun. It could not be cut with a single blow _____ (6介词) an axe. The wood material formed a protective blanket ______ （7引导词）stopped the ice from melting. A five-foot block of this ice was boiled in water for four days ______ ( 8连词) it melted. It _____（9用动词的适当形式填空）for weeks in ____ (10冠词) lake water at sixty degrees Fahrenheit without melting.
1. coming---came 2 This 3 They found that it was very strong 4 strengthened
5 stop from 6 from 7 which/that 8 before 9 was floated 10 /
Our modern world is founded on science and on technology too, which is the application of science ___1__（介词） everyday affairs. Mostly everything we do depends on our modern devices such as automobiles, record players and TV sets(2改正错误), and ___3___（代词） in turn depend on scientific principles. Our future will depend on computers, robots, nuclear power and rockets ships, all of them only make sense if we understand science(4改为定语从句).
If a person ____5____(not understand的正确时态) what makes these things work, they might as well be magic. People without ___6__(冠词) understanding of science live in a world that makes no sense. They might say, “So what? All I want to do is make a living, have a family and look at the scenery”. This is not so easy. They may find (7合并为一句).
Surely, it will be ____8____(increase的正确派生词) important, as the years pass, for people to understand science if they are going to be expected to help ____9____(make的正确形式) intelligent decisions about how to use science to save the world and not to destroy it.
That is ___10___(引导词) it is important to study science even if one is not going to be a scientist.
1. to 2 Almost 3. these
4. all of which only make sense if we understand science. 5. does not understand
6 . an 7. They may find (that) this is not so easy. 8. increasingly 9 make 10. why
The Chinese first made paper about 2000 years ago. China still has pieces of paper which were made as long as ___1___. But paper was not made in southern Europe ___2___ abut the year 1100. Scandinavia---which now ___3___(make) a great deal of the world’s paper---did not begin to make it until 1500. ___4___ was a German named Schaeffer who found out that one could make the best paper from trees.
Paper is very good for ___5___ (keep) you warm. Houses are often insulated(使绝缘) with paper. You have perhaps seen ___6____(home) men asleep on a larger number of newspapers. We ____7____(have) paper cups, plates, and dishes for a long time. Now chairs and ___8___ beds can be made of paper. We hear. ____9___paper boots and shoes, you can wear paper hats, paper dresses, and paper raincoats. When you have used them once, you throw them away and buy new ____10___.
1. that 2 until 3. makes 4. It 5. keeping
6 homeless 7 have had 8 even 9 With 10 ones
The pyramids were built on high ground, above the highest point __1__ the Nile flood water ever reached. The pyramid builders first built a slope ___2__ the Nile bank to the place for the Great Pyramid. Making this road and preparing the ground took 10 years. After that, ___3___ (build) the great Pyramid itself took 20 years. And ___4___ was possible only because the Pharaoh of Egypt used a very large number of people for the work. Some of them were prisoners of war and other captures people. ___5___ many of them were the Pharaoh’s own people---the farmers of Egypt. ___6___ the Nile flood began in September and their fields were ___7___ water, the pharaoh’s servants ordered them to go to work at the pyramids.
By the end of the great period of pyramid building the rich country of Egypt ___8__（become）poor. Why did the Pharaohs do it? It was a time of change in their religion. At the beginning of the period, the Pharaoh ___9___ (expect) to live in his tomb after death. His life there, he thought, would be like his life ____10___ death（10合并为一句）.
1.that 2. from 3. building 4. this 5 But
6.When 7 under 8.had become 9. expected 10 before
Getting paid to talk about the World Cup is a great job. I’m not a football commentator, though just an English teacher in Japan.
I came to Japan two years ago, and didn’t think I would stay, but Japan has that effect ______(介词) you. People often end up living here ______(long) than they planned. I think it’s best to teach in a bigger city ______(引导词) there are other foreigners to mix with. Rather than a small town where English teachers often complain of ______(feel) like a goldfish in a bowl. Many people choose to live in Tokyo, of course, which is good for the nightlife factor. But I’d say that for general quality of living, cities of neither too large ______(连词) too small, like Sapporo where I live, are better choices.
I teach English  ______ (private), which means I’m my own boss. If you want to devote yourself to private teaching, it’s well worth doing a TEFL course first, because your lessons will be much better for it. The problem with private teaching is finding students. It took me a year to build up ______(冠词) full schedule(日程表) of private lessons. I started out teaching in schools part time.
Most of my foreign friends here work full time for big English conversation schools. The salary is fine to ______(动词短语). But whether you can save money depend on how much going out and traveling you do here.(改正错误)
The schools are reluctant to take time off---even teachers with tickets for the England-Argentina game had trouble  ______ (get) the day off.
1. on 2. longer 3. where 4. feeling 5 nor
6. privately 7. a 8. live on 9. depend 10 getting
The world ____1___(run) out of oil and energy experts believe that there could be serious shortages in ten years’ time. Not only is each individual using more oil than ever before, as the standard of living in industrialized countries rises, but the population ____2___(explode) means that each year ____3___ more people will be using oil in some form ___4___ other. Until recently we took oil for granted: it seemed it would never stop flowing. It was ___5___ cheap and plentiful that the whole world came to depend on it. Government neglected other ___6____ of energy: electricity was generated from oil and power stations were fired by it. It found its way into many of the products of light industry. Many people are surprised ___7___ they learn how many items in their homes contain oil.
The increase in the price of oil has brought the world to its senses. Governments are searching for a suitable alternative, ___8___ so far in vain. They are considering ___9___ they can make better use of the two other major fuels, coal and natural gas, but they have found that ___10___ can take the place of oil in their economics.
1. is running 2. explosion 3. many 4. or 5. so
6. sources 7. when 8. but 9. how 10. neither
Pete sat on the bench now, ___1___ able to move. He was too tired. He happened to look to the left ___2___ there in the distance he saw the Old Gentleman coming toward him. He wanted to get up and run, but he was so full of food that he stayed right there. Every Thanksgiving Day ___3___ nine years, the Old Gentleman had come ___4___ and found Pete on this same bench, and then taken him to a restaurant and bought him a ___5____ dinner. It was a kind of tradition ___6___ the Old Gentleman, __7___ had no family and lived alone, had tried to continue. The old man was tall and thin and 60 years old. He was noble looking and he always ____8___ (dress) in black. His hair was whiter and thinner than it ___9___ (be) the year before, and he leaned _____10____ (heavy) on his cane than he used to.
1.hardly 2. and 3. for 4. there 5. Thanksgiving
6. which 7. who 8 dressed 9. had been 10. more heavily
How much paper do you use every year? Probably you can’t answer that question quickly. In 1900 the world’s use of paper was about one kilogram ___1__ each person in a year. Now some countries use as ___2___ as 50 kilograms of paper for each person in a year. The amount of paper a country uses shows how far advanced the country is, some people say. It is difficult to say ___3___ this is true: different people mean different things ___4___ the word ‘advanced’. But countries ___5___ the United States, England and Sweden certainly use more paper than other countries.
Paper, like many other things ___6___ we use today, was first made in China. In Egypt and the West, paper was not very ___7___(common) used before the year 1400. The ___8___ wrote on papyrus; Europeans used parchment for many hundreds of years. Parchment was very strong; it was made from the ___9___ of certain young animal. We have learnt some of the most important facts of European history from records that ___10___(keep) on parchment.
1. for 2. much 3. whether 4 by 5 like
6. that 7. commonly 8. Egyptians 9. skin 10 were kept
Only one of the ‘seven Wonders’ of the ancient world remains: the pyramids of Egypt. The ___1___(famous) of the Egyptian pyramids are the pyramids of Giza. These pyramids were built more than 5,000 years ago. The biggest of ___2___ was the ‘Great Pyramid’, the pyramid of Khufh. It was 146 meters high, and each of the four sides ___3___(measure) 230 meters and faced exactly north, south, east or west. It was made of about 2,300,000 blocks of stones, all exactly the ___4___ shape. The ___5___ of each block was about 2.5 tons.
The ancient Egyptians had ___6___ like our machines to lift heavy things. They used sledges, levers, and rollers. They were very clever ___7___ these things. The power ___8___(supply) by hundreds or thousands of men. To move a big block of stone to a position 100 meters up, they ___9___ built up a long slope from the ground to that position, then they used levers and rollers to put the block on a sledge, and many men polled the sledge ___10___ the slope.
1. most famous 2. them 3. measured 4. same 5. weight
6. nothing 7. with 8. was supplied 9. first 10. up
In Tokyo there are always too many people in the places ___1___ I want to be. That is the important fact for me. Of course there are too many cars. The Japanese drive very fast when they can but in Tokyo they often spend a long time in traffic jams. Tokyo is not different from London, Paris and New York ___2___ that. It is different ___3___ one wants to walk.
At certain times of the ___4___ there are a lot of people on foot in London’s Oxford Street or near the big shops and stores in ___5___ great cities. ___6___ the streets near the Ginza in Tokyo always have a lot of people on foot, and sometimes it is really ___7___ to walk. People are very polite; there are just too many of them.
The worst time to be in the street is at 11:30 at night. That is when the night clubs ___8___(close) and everybody wants to go home. There are 35,000 night clubs in Tokyo, and you do not often see ___9___ that is empty. Between 11 and 12 everybody is looking for a taxi. Usually the taxis ___10___(share) by four or five people who live in the same part of the city.
1. where 2 in 3 when 4 day 5 other
6. But 7 difficult 8 are closing 9 one 10 are shared
In the old days an Eskimo boy went out ___1___ with the men at the age of twelve. At twenty, he was an ___2___(experience) and skilful hunter. He brought home seals, birds, caribou, polar bears, and even whales. When he married, he chose a wife ___3___ was skilful in many ways, ___4___(special) in making clothes and other things ____5___ skins.
The Eskimos taught their children with great care. The old stories ____6___(tell) in words which never changed and the children had to tell them again and again ____7___ they knew them perfectly. They learned the old Eskimos songs and dances which ____8___(express) their ideas about nature and the spirit world. And most of all they learnt the skills which kept the Eskimos ____9___ in a hard land---the skills ___10___ used every part of the animals, birds and fish and the few plants and trees.
1. hunting 2. experienced 3. who 4 especially 5 from
6. were told 7. until 8 expressed 9. alive 10 which
Many small ___1___ (culture) groups live in places far away from modern cities. Some of these tribes have never had any communication outside of their small geographical areas. When they do contact the outside world, their lives usually change. ___2___(learn) how to change ___3___ losing the best of their own cultures is a problem for them. How can primitive cultures learn to live in a technological world? How can they do this without becoming ___4___?
One native tribe in New Guinea has a difficult situation. The people of the tribe ___5___(pull) in two ways. First of all, copper has been discovered under the land ___6___ they have lived for centuries. ___7___(develop) want to take the copper out of the ground, to mine it. The tribe needs the money ___8___ a copper mine would bring. The problem is that the copper is directly under the ___9___ (important) buildings of their society. These buildings are a necessary part of their religion. How can the copper ___10___(mine) without changing the group’s religion?
1. cultural 2. Learning 3.without 4. lost 5. are being pulled
6. where 7. Developers 8. that 9. most important 10. be mined