状 语 从 句
句 类 别
从句 地点状语从句 原因状语从句 目的状语从句 结果状语从句 条件状语从句 方式状语从句 比较状语从句 让步状语从句
(1) 表示同时性， 即主从句的谓语动作同时发生或几乎同时发生。其连词有：when （当……的时候）, while（当……的时候）, as（当……的时候）, as soon as（一……就……）, once（一旦……）等。如：
Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。
While I am washing the floor, you can be cleaning the windows.（while含有对比的意思）
As / When I came home, I met an old schoolmate of mine.
I’ll ring you up as soon as I get an answer from him. 我一有他的答复就给你打电话。
Once you see him, you will never forget him. 你一旦见过他，就不会忘了他的。
(2) 表示先时或后时，即主句的谓语动作发生在从句之前或之后，主要连词有：after （在……后）, before （在……之前）, when (=after)等。如：
After / When the children had gone to bed, she began to prepare her lessons.（从句的动作发生在主句的动作之前，所以从句用了过去完成时） 孩子睡觉了以后她开始备课。
He had learned English for three years before he went to London.（主句的动作发生在从句的动作之前，所以主句用了过去完成时） 他去伦敦之前已学了三年英语。
It was not long before I forgot it all. (It is / was / will be …before…是常用句型)
He ran off before I could stop him.（主句和从句的动作几乎同时发生，时态一致）
(3) 表示习惯性、经常性，即从句描述的不是一次性动作，而是经常发生的习惯性动作。主要连词有every time（每次）, each time（每次）, whenever（每当）等。例如：
Whenever we met with difficulties, they came to help us.
Each time he came to town he would visit our school.
Every time I went to his house, he was out. 我每次去他家，他都出去了。
（4）表示持续性或瞬间性，主要连词有：since（自从）, ever since（自从）, until（直到……才/为止）, till（直到……才/为止）等。如：
It is just a week since we arrived here.（It is /was… since…是常用句型）
我们到这儿刚刚一星期。 (主句的动作或状态持续时间较短，不能用ever since)
You have been reading to me ever since James went out.（ever 放在since之前是用来表示说话者强调主句动作或状态持续时间长） 自从James走后你一直在给我朗读。
The big clock which used to strike the hours day and night was damaged during the war and has been silent ever since. ( ever since可以放在句末， since则不能)
My uncle went to Tibet in 1951. He has been living there ever since.
Things went well until / till one night an accident happened.
I knew nothing about it until / till he told me. (但Until he told me, I knew nothing about it. “till”不位于句首。)他告诉我了我才知道。
Wuhan lies where the Yangtze and the Han River meet. 武汉位于长江和汉水汇合处。
Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者，事竟成。
You’d better make a mark where you have a question.
He would keep in touch with us wherever he was .
表示原因的状语从句可以由as（由于）, because(因为), since（既然）, now (that) （既然）, considering that（顾及到）, seeing that（由于）等连词引导：
I do it because I like it. 因为我喜欢我才干。(because不能与 so连用)
He couldn’t have seen me, because I was not there.
Seeing (that) quite a few people were absent, we decided to put the meeting off.
Now that/Since you are all here, let’s try and reach a decision.
As she was ill, she didn’t come to the party. 由于病了，她没来参加晚会。
Considering that they are just beginners, they are doing quite a good job.
引导目的状语从句的主要连词有:that, so that（以便）, in order that（为了）, for fear that（以便）, in case（万一）等，从句中常常使用一些情态动词，如：can, could, may, might, should等。如：
Let’s take the front seats (so) that we may see more clearly.
School was closed early in order that the children might go home ahead of the storm.
He took the name down for fear that he should forget it.
Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 最好多带些衣服以防天气会冷。
引导结果状语从句的连词有：that, so that（从句中不带情态动词）, so…that(如此……以致……), such…that(如此……以致……)等。
What has happened that you all look so excited?
He didn’t plan his time well, so that/so he didn’t finish the work in time.
We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 我们走得匆忙，把门都忘了锁了。（such是形容词，后接名词）
The village is so small that it cannot be shown in the map.
Jenny is such a clever girl that all the teachers like her very much = Jenny is so clever a girl that…. Jenny是如此聪明的女孩，以至老师们都非常喜欢她。
但是，当名词前有many, much, few, little(少)修饰时，要用so,不能用such。例如：
I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over.
He has so few friends that he often feels lonely. 他朋友很少，所以经常感到孤独。
I had so little money then that I couldn’t afford a little present.
表示条件的状语从句可以由if（如果）, unless（除非）, in case（万一）, so /as long as（只要）, as/ so far as（就……而言）, on condition that（条件是……）, suppose（假设）, supposing（假设）（仅用在问句中）等词或词组引导。一般情况下当主句是将来时的时候，从句要用一般现在时。
As/So long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll find a way to overcome the difficulty.
Send us a message in case you have any difficulty.
If you leave at 6 o’clock tomorrow morning, you’d better get to bed now.
We’ll let you use the room on condition that you keep it clean and tidy.
As/So far as I know, he is an expert on DNA. 据我所知，他是一个DNA专家。
He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low/ if the salary is not too low.
Suppose/Supposing we can’t get enough food, what shall we do?
方式状语从句常由as（与……一样）, as if（仿佛）, as though（仿佛）等词引导：
Do in Rome as the Romans do.入乡随俗。
Leave things as they are.让一切顺其自然。
She stood at the door as if (=as though) she were waiting for someone.
她站在门口，仿佛在等人似的。（由as if或 as though引导的从句中可用虚拟语气）
It rains more often in Shanghai than in Beijing. 上海下的雨比北京的多。
Our country is as big as the whole of Europe. 我们的国家同整个欧洲一样大。
The result was not as/so good as I had expected. 结果不如我预料的那么好。
The busier he is, the happier he feels. （常见句型）他越忙越开心。
让步状语从句由although（尽管）, though（尽管）, however（无论怎样）, whatever（无论什么）, whoever（无论谁）, whomever（无论谁）, whichever（无论哪个）, whenever（无论何时）, wherever（无论哪里）, whether（是否）, no matter (who, what, where, when, etc) （无论……）, even if（即使）, even though（即使）等词引导。如：
We won’t be discouraged even if (=even though) we fail ten times.
It was an exciting game, though / although no goals were scored.
那是一场精彩的球赛，尽管一个球都没进。(though, although不能与 but连用)
Whether you believe it or not, it’s true.不管你信不信，这是真的。
However (=No matter how) expensive it may be, I’ll take it.
Don’t let them in, whoever(=no matter who) they are. 不管他们是谁，别让他们进来。
No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks I’m wrong.
Young as he is, he knows a lot=Though he is young 或Young though he is, he….
It was hard work;; I enjoyed it, though=It was hard work, but I enjoyed it.
1．as, when, while的区别
as, when, while都表示主、从句的动作或状态同时发生，但三者意义不尽相同。as和when引导的从句既可表示一点时间，也可表示一段时间，从句中的谓语动词既可以是持续性动词，也可以为短暂性动词，经常可以互换使用；while引导的从句通常表示一段时间，从句中宜用持续性动词作谓语。当从句中的谓语动词为持续性动词时，这三者可以通用（前面例句中已有体现），再如：
Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially as / when / while father was away in France. 妈妈担心，因为小艾丽思病了，特别是当父亲远在法国的时候。
He looked behind from to time as he went. 他一边走，一边不时地往后看。
As time goes on, it’s getting warmer and warmer..
I thought of it just as you opened your mouth.
She thought I was talking about her daughter, while in fact, I was talking about my daughter. 她以为我在谈论她女儿，而事实上，我在谈论我的女儿。
如果表示从句的动作在主句的动作“之前”或“之后”发生时，多用when（=after）, 不用as或 while。此外，when还含有“at that moment”的意思（= and then），引起的句子不能放在句首，也不能用as, while来替换。例如：
He was about to leave when the telephone rang. 他正要离开，忽然电话铃响了。
We were watching TV when suddenly the lights went out. 我们正在看电视，突然灯灭了。
They had just arrived home when it began to rain. 他们刚到家，天就开始下雨了。
2．until与till及 not…until / till的用法
He waited until / till we finished our meal.他一直等到我们吃完饭。
I didn’t leave until / till / before she came back.直到她回来，我才离开的。
Until he told me, I knew nothing about it. 他告诉我了我才知道。
Not until she came back did I leave.
It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a famous film star.
( It is /was … that…是常见的强调句型结构 )直到这位大明星摘下墨镜，我才认出她。
3．有时，the time（当……的时刻）, the moment（当……的时刻）, by the time（到……
时候为止）, next time(下次), the first time(第一次……的时候), the last time(上次……的 时候)，immediately（一……就……）, instantly（一……就……）, directly（一……就……）等词或词组以及hardly /scarcely…when…（刚……就……）, no sooner…than…（刚…… 就……）等关联词也可引导表示时间的状语从句。例如：
Be sure to call on us next time you come to town. 下次你进城一定来看我们。
By the time he was fourteen, Einstein had learned advanced mathematics all by himself. (by意为“到．．．．．．为止”，引起的从句中为一般过去时，主句中用过去完成时)
She rushed into the room immediately / the moment she heard the noise.
He left me a good impression the first time I met him.
He had no sooner arrived there than he fell ill.他刚到达那里就生起病来。
He had hardly finished when someone rose to refute his points.
She had scarcely fallen asleep when a knock at the door awakened her.
当hardly, scarcely, no sooner位于引起的句子的开头时，常用倒装语序。上面的例句可以依次改写成：
No sooner had he arrived there than he fell ill.
Hardly had he finished when someone rose to refute his points.
Scarcely had she fallen asleep when a knock at the door awakened her.
I won’t let you in unless you show me your pass = I won’t let you in if you don’t show me your pass. 如果你不出示通行证，我就不让你进来。
但是，在下列情况下，两者是有区别的。（1）unless引导真实条件句，if…not可以引导真实条件句或非真实条件句。（2）unless从句中有否定词时，不能换成if…not结构。（3）如果主句描述的是情感或情绪活动方面的内容，if…not结构不能换成unless。如：I’ll be quite glad if she doesn’t come this evening.(她今晚如果不来我很高兴。)（4）unless表示唯一条件，不能用and连接重复使用，if…not则可以。
5．because, since, as, for的区别
（1）在这四个连词中，because语气最强，它引导的从句表达的是未知的新信息，也是该主从复合句中的焦点，一般都置于主句之后（也可以放在主句之前，用逗号隔开）。在回答”why”引导的特殊疑问句时，一般只能用because；在强调结构”It is/was …that …”中，也只能用because。此外，在关联词“not …but …”结构中，也用because引导的原因状语从句。例如：
It’s because he helped you that I’m prepared to help him.正是因为他帮助过你，所以我乐意去帮助他。
- Why didn’t you phone me last night?你昨天夜里为什么没给我打电话？
- Because I didn’t want to disturb you.因为我不想在夜里打扰你。
He decided to give up the chance of going aboard, not because he did not want to but because his wife was ill.他决定放弃出国的机会，不是因为他不想去，而是因为他妻子病了。
Since you have no license, you are not allowed to drive.
As he was not well enough, I had to go without him.
（3）for的语气不及because, since, as强，为并列连词，引导的分句常放在主句之后，从句前通常用逗号，表示说话者为所做的推断和预测提供理由，或对前一分句进行补充和解释。如：
It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.(for分句表示说话者推断“昨晚天下雨”的理由。此时，because不能替代for，因为地湿不是造成下雨的直接原因。原句可改为：The ground is wet, for / because it rained last night.)
6.so that, so…that, such…that
so that “以便”、“结果”表目的和结果。注意：在从句中有情态动词表目的。无情态动词表结果。
7.though, although, as,
▲ as though (=as if); even if (=even though) ▲ 在句末表示“然而”
8.whatever, however, wherever, whenever
它们是what, how, where, when的强势语气。分别等于：
no matter what, no matter how, no matter where, no matter when
Look out for cars when crossing the street (= when you are crossing …).
She hurriedly left the room as though /if angry (= as though/if she was /were angry…).
If possible, I’d like to have two copies if it (= if it is possible,…).
She advised me not to say anything unless asked (= unless I was asked ).
As a young man, he studied law and became a lawyer(= As/ When he was a young man,…).他年轻时就学了法律，并当了律师。
状语从句在复合句中作状语，修饰主句中的谓语动词、副词、形容词或整个句子。根据句子的含义，它可表时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、行为方式、比较、让步等。状语从句通常由一个连词引起，有时由一个起连词作用的词组引起。状语从句是中学的重点语法项目，也是高考常考的语法项目之一。除1996年外，每年至少有一题考查状语从句，1998年达到了4个, 1999年6个, 2000年普通高等学校春季招生全国统一考试（北京、安徽卷）中2个。命题热点集中在⑴引导状语从句的连词，⑵状语从句中的时态、语态、语气，⑶与其它从句、句型结合起来考查。
1. ____the day went on, the weather got worse. (MET90)
A. With B. Since C. While D. As
2. - What was the party like?
- Wonderful. It's years ___ I enjoyed myself so much. (MET93)
A. after B. before C. when D. since
3. Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially ___ Father was away in France.
A. as B. that C. during D. if (NMET94)
4. Why do you want a new job ____ you got such a good one already? (NMET98)
A. that B. where C. which D. when
5. After the war, a new school building was put up ____there had once been a theatre.
A. that B. where C. which D. when (NMET97)
6. You will be late ____you leave immediately. (NMET92)
A. unless B. until C. if D. or
7. _____, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together. (NMET97)
A. However late is he B. However he is late
C. However is he late D. However late he is
8. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, ____ great it is. (NMET95)
A. what B. how C. however D. whatever
9. We won't give up ____ we should fail ten times. (93年上海 高考题)
A. even if B. since C. whether D. until
10. She doesn't speak ____her friend, but her written work is excellent. (NMET93)
A. as well as B. so often as C. so much as D. as good as
11. ... She rubs her teeth with her finger 47 she wants to brush her teeth. ...
A. when B. until C. since D. while (NMET95完型)
12. ... He even 36 lost his job as a postman 37 he sent off all the letters when he shoud
have taken them to people's house. ... (NMET 98 完型填空)
A. even if B. so that C. because D. though
13. - I'm going to the post office.
- You're there, can you get me some stamps? (NMET 99)
A. As B. While C. Because D. If
14. ____ you've got a chance, you might as well make full use of it.(NMET 99)
A. Now that B. After C. Although D. As soon as
15. You should make it a rule to leave things ______ you can find them again. (NMET 99)
A. When B. where C. then D. there
16." 32 we must have these noisy trucks on the roads," said Jean Lacrey, a biology student,
"why don't they built a new road that goes through the town?..." (NMET99完形填空)
A. If B. Although C. When D. Unless
17. "Most of them don't live here anyway," he said," they come in for meetings and that , and
the Town Hall is soundproof(隔音),41 they probably don't notice the noise all that much.
It's high time they realized the problem." (NMET 99完形填空)
A. but B. so C. or D. for
18. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ________ for the first time
in years their team won the World Cup.
A. that B. while C. which D. when
19. John may phone tonight. I don't want to go out ________ he phones.
A. as long as B. in order that C. in case D. so that
考查热点在引导时间、地点、条件、让步、比较、原因状语从句的连词上。引导时间状语从句的连词常有：when, whenever, as, while, before, after, since, as soon as, till, until, hardly... when, no sooner...than, every time, the moment等。引导地点状语从句的连词常有：where, wherever。引导条件状语从句的连词常有：if, unless, so(as)long as, in case 等。引导让步状语从句的连词常有：although, though, as, even if(though),no matter (who, what, how, when, where), whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever, however等。引导比较状语从句的连词常有：than, as...as...等。 引导原因状语从句的连词常有：because, as, since等。
20.The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she ____. (NMET90)
A. will arrive B. arrives C. is arriving D. is going to arrive
21.The volleyball match will be put off if it ____. (NMET91)
A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is raining
22. - Can I join your club, Dad?
- You can when you ___ a bit older. (NMET94)
A. get B. will get C. are getting D. will have get
23. Remeber to send me a photo of your son next time you ____ to me. (NMET94)
A. write B. will write C. are writing D. would write
24. If city noises ____from increasing, people ____shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20
years from now. (NMET92)
A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to
C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to
25. I need one more stamp before my collection ____. (NMET94)
A. has completed B. completes
C. has been completed D. is completed
26. As she ___the newspaper, Granny _____asleep. (NMET95)
A. read, was falling B. was reading, fell
C. was reading, was falling D. read, fell
as, when, while引导的时间状语从句表过去的情况时， 如从句为延续性动词，主句为短暂性动词，那么主句用一般过去时，从句用过去进行时。
27. If it ____for the snow, we ____ the mountain yesterday. (NMET91)
A. were not; could have climbed B. were not; could climb
C. had not been; could have climbed D. had not been; could climb
28. - If he ____, he _____that food.
- Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. (NMET93)
A. was warned; would not take
B. had been warned; would not have taken
C. would be warned; had not taken
D. would have been warned; had not taken
29. You didn't let me drive. If we ___in turn, you _____so tired. (NMET96)
A. drove; didn't get B. drove; would get
C. were driving; wouldn't get D. had driven; wouldn't have got
if引导的从句在非真实条件句中要用虚拟语气。 与过去事实相反的，条件句中用过去完成时，主句中用would have done。
30. We'll have to finish the job, ____ (NMET99).
A. long it takes however. B. it takes however long.
C. long however it takes. D. however long it takes
31. It worried her a bit ____her hair was turning grey. (NMET 92)
A. while B. that C. if D. for
32. ____ it with me and I'll see what I can do. (NMET 98)
A. when left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave
33. ... Then the great day came 43 he was to march past the palace in the parade(接受检阅
的队伍). ... (NMET 98 完型填空)
A. where B. since C. when D. till
34. Not until I began to work ____how much time I had wasted. (NMET90)
A. didn't I realize B. did I realize
C.I didn't realize D. I realized
35. Not until all the fish died in the river ____how serious the pollution was. (NMET95)
A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized
C. the villagers did realize D. didn't the villagers realize
not...until 引导的时间状语从句如在句首， 主句的语序应为部分倒装。
36. It was not ___she took off her glasses ____I realized she was a famous star.(MET92)
A. when; that B. until; that C. until; when D. when; then
37. It was not until 1920 ___ regular radio broadcasts began.(NMET95)
A. while B. which C. that D. since
1--5 DDADB 6-10 ADCAA 11-15 ACBAB 16-20 ABDCB
21-25 BAAAD 26-30 BCBDB 31-35 BDCBA 36-37 BC