Unit 5 The silver screen(人教版高一英语上册教案教学设计)

发布时间:2016-8-25 编辑:互联网 手机版

1.重点词汇

silver hero scene law career drama role actress award prize choice degree director speed script actor academy studio creature outer adult follow-up cruelty peace industry owe happiness accept icy primary leader determine live(adj.) boss comment action

2.重点词组

silver screen take off go wrong owe sth to sb in all stay away primary school lock sb up run after bring sb back on the air think highly of

3.交际用语

提出看法与作出评价:

I think the film has a good beginning / ending.

I think that DVDs shouldn’t be sold at such a high price / should be much cheaper.

The actors / actress are…; How do you like…? What do you think of / about…? What do you feel about…?

时序:

You studied / worked / acted / at different …; First…, and then…; What did you do next? Finally you found a job as …; Later on…; What made you decide to…? What roles did you act? How long have you been working as…?

4.语法难点

定语从句(2):关系副词引导的定语从句和介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

5.话题

1. Talk about films: famous actors and directors

2. Make comments and give opinions on films

Tell Me More!(背景篇)

Mini biography

Without a doubt one of the most influential film personalities in the history of film, Steven Spielberg is perhaps Hollywood's best known director and one of the wealthiest filmmakers in the world. Spielberg has countless big grossing critically acclaimed credits to his name, both as producer, director and writer.

Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1946. He went to Long Beach University, but dropped out to pursue his entertainment career. He gained

notoriety as an uncredited assistant editor on the classic western "Wagon Train" (1957). Among his early directing efforts were Battle Squad (1961), Escape to Nowhere (1961), and The Last Gun (1959) . All of these were short films.

The next couple of years Spielberg directed a couple of movies that would be foretelling to his future career in movies. In 1964 he directed Firelight (1964), a movie about aliens invading a small town. In 1967 he directed the movie Slipstream (1967), which was unfinished. But in 1968 he directed the movie Amblin' (1968), which featured the desert prominently, and not the first Spielberg movie the desert would be so prominent in. Amblin would also become the production company he would produce many films with, including the classic E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). Spielberg had a unique and classic early directing project, Duel (1971/I) (TV), with Dennis Weaver. The film is considered a unique classic that still baffles some.

In the early 1970s Spielberg was working on TV, in Rod Serling's "Night Gallery" (1970), "Marcus Welby, M.D." (1969) and Columbo: Murder by the Book (1971) (TV), to name a few. All of his work in television and short films, as well as his directing projects were just the beginning of the gathering storm of talent that would become the Spielberg that made the brilliant films he would later become known for internationally.

As an undoubted rising star, his major directorial effort was The Sugarland Express (1974), with Goldie Hawn. It was his next directorial effort that made Spielberg an international superstar among directors: Jaws (1975). This classic shark attack tale started the tradition of the summer blockbuster, or at least he was credited with starting the tradition.

His next effort was the classic Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), a unique and very original UFO story that remains a cult classic. In 1978 Spielberg produced his first film, the forgettable I Wanna Hold Your Hand (1978), and followed his first effort with Used Cars (1980), a critically acclaimed, but mostly forgotten Kurt Russell\Jack Warden comedy. Spielberg hit gold again directing Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), with Harrison Ford taking the part of Indiana Jones. Spielberg produced and directed two films in 1982. The first one was Poltergeist (1982), but the highest grossing movie of all time up to that point was the alien story, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982).

Spielberg also made money a major part of the film industry, or at least a bigger part of the industry than it was before. He was the first producer to use product placement in his films, with the infamous placement of Rieces Pieces in "E.T." Spielberg was also one of the pioneers of the big grossing special effects movies, like "E.T.," and "Close Encounters," where a very strong emphasis on special effects was placed for the first time on such a large scale.

Spielberg is a great filmmaker without a doubt, and it does not seem he is anywhere near done making films, and with all of the money he has he probably could do anything he wanted to. And recently Spielberg graduated from Long Beach State University with a degree in filmmaking. His possibilities are still limitless.

Plot Summary for Jaws

Martin Brody is the new police chief of Amity, an island resort town somewhere in New England. He has a wife named Ellen, and two sons named Michael and Sean. On a Summer morning, Brody is called to the beach, where the mangled body of Summer vacationer Chrissie Watkins has washed ashore. The medical examiner tells Brody that it could have been a shark that killed Watkins. Mayor Larry Vaughn, who is desperate to not lose the money that will be brought in by 4th of July tourists, wants Brody to say Watkins's death was caused by a motorboat propeller instead of a shark, because the thought of a shark in Amity's waters would drive tourists away from Amity. It looks like Vaughn is a mayor who puts money ahead of people's lives. Shark expert Matt Hooper believes Watkins was killed by a shark. Hooper is proven right a few days later, when Alex Kintner is killed by the shark that killed Watkins. Looking for the quickest solution, Vaughn tells all of the local fishermen to let him know if they see the shark. A shark hunter named Quint offers to find the shark and kill it, but Vaughn thinks Quint's price of $10,000 is too high. When a tiger shark is killed and hauled in by a couple of boaters, Vaughn hastily says that the shark crisis is over, but Hooper says the shark that's been killing people a huge great white shark is still in Amity's waters, but Vaughn leaves the beaches opened because all he cares about is the 4th of July tourist money. On the 4th of July, Vaughn encourages people to swim at the beach, and Hooper is proven right again when the shark kills a man, biting the man's leg off. Michael, who was in the water at the time of the attack, is taken to the hospital, where he's treated for shock after watching the shark kill the guy. Brody asks Vaughn to hire Quint to find the shark. Because his own kids were at that beach too, Vaughn agrees to hire Quint to find the shark. Quint, Hooper, and Brody are sent out to sea in Quint's boat, the Orca, ready to do whatever it takes to find the shark.

Plot Summary for Jurassic Park

1

Scientists develop a means of bringing dinosaurs to life using DNA taken from dino' blood, which has been preserved inside insects encased in amber. Whilst Hammond is showing off his dinosaur 'theme park' to a selected audience [a lawyer (Gerrano), mathematician (Malcolm), dino' expert (Grant), palaeobotanist (Sattler) and his grandchildren (Tim & Lex)], Nedry (computer expert) disables the security system so that he can make his escape with some stolen embryos. This enables all the dinosaurs to escape their enclosures... Look out the dinosaurs are coming !

2

On a remote island, a wealthy entrepreneur secretly creates a theme park featuring living dinosaurs drawn from prehistoric DNA. Before opening the attraction to the public, he invites a top paleontologist, a paleobotanist, a mathematician/theorist, and his two eager grandchildren to experience the park -- and help calm anxious investors. However, their park visit is anything but tranquil as the park's security system breaks down, the prehistoric creatures break out, and the excitement builds to surprising results. Based on Michael Crichton's best-selling novel.

3

John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) has developed a dinosaur park (in a very remote Island) using a DNA of a prehistoric dinosaur taken from an ancient insect. In a tour that Hammond makes to a selected audience which suppose to decide whether the park is safe or not safe for public, the security system collapsed, and the dinosaurs set themselves free. Now the selected audience, in the leadership of Doctor Grant (Sam Neil) and include Doctor Malcolm, Doctor Sattler, Hammond's grandchildren, and some more has to survive in the Island.

Key Points(知识篇)

1. Interview each other using the information in the short biographies. 用小传中的信息进行相互采访。

Quiz

(1) He sent me an email, _______ to get further information.

A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope

(2) She stood there in the rain, ________ for the sun ________.

A. waiting, to arrive B. waited, to arrive C. waiting, arriving D. waited, arriving

Rules

1. interview vt. 面试,采访,访问 ~sb (for sth.)对某人进行面试; ~ sb (about sth.)(记者等)采访,访问。例如

They interviewed 10 people for the job. 为这份工作他们对10个人进行了面试。

He interviewed the president about the current economic policy.他就当前的经济政策采访了总统。

interview n. 面试,面谈,会晤,商谈。例如

Applicants will be called for interview. 申请者将被要求面试

a TV interview 电视采访

I hope to have an interview with my English teacher to discuss my study method.我希望和英语老师谈谈我的学习方法。

2. using the information 在句中是一个现在分词短语做伴随状语或方式状语,有时用逗号与其它成分隔开。例如

Just then, the rain came pouring down. 正在那个时候,雨来了,倾盆而下。

The students walked out of the gate, singing and laughing.

2. While still a student, she played roles in many plays. 她还是一个学生时,就在很多戏剧里边扮演了角色。

Quiz

(1) Our football team, ________ successful in qualifying for the 2002 World Cup finals, still has a long way to go.

A. as B. after C. once D. though

(2) This is an illness that can result in total blindness ________left untreated.

A. after B. if C. since D. unless

(3) - Don’t answer me with a simple “yes” or “no”. Explain _____possible.

- Yes, I’ll try my best.

A. whoever B. whenever C. however D. whatever

(4) You shouldn’t keep silent when _________.

A. speaking B. spoken to C. spoken D. speaking to

(5) While ________ the street, Tom was knocked down by a car.

A. crossing B. across C. passed D. through

Rules

时间状语从句的紧缩形式, 当状语从句和主句的主语是同一个时,可以省掉从句的主语及be动词。连接词后常为名词,形容词,动词的-ing或 –ed形式和介词短语等。注意动词的-ing或 –ed形式的用法区别,表示主动时用-ing形式,表示被动时用 –ed形式。本单元中的下列句子也是这一现象。

1)After graduating, she went to New York, where she started working as an actress and won the Theatre World Award for her role in a play.

2)During the 1980s and 1990s she won many more prizes while acting in famous films such as Sophie’s Choice(1982), Out of Africa(1985) and Music of the Heart(1999).

3)After acting in many cheap films for a few years, he was asked to play a role in the film Speed in 1994.

4)When asked about the secret of his success, Steven Spieldberg said that he owes much of his success and happiness to his wife and children。

再例如:

Don’t speak until spoken to. 别人对你说话你才说话

Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦见过那个东西,就永远不会忘记。

While in Beijing, I paid a visit to the Summer Palace. 我在北京时参观了颐和园。

Pressure can be reduced when needed. 不要的时候,压力可以减小。

I prefer my milk a little sweetened whenever possible. 每当可能的时候,我都喜欢和甜一点的牛奶。

He was a swimmer when a child. 当他是个孩子时就会游泳了。

As a young man, Abraham Lincoln was a storekeeper and a postmaster. 亚伯拉罕林肯年轻时,当过商店老板和邮电所长。

He often makes mistakes when speaking English.他说英语时常常犯错误。

She always sings while doing her work. 干活时她总要唱歌。

3. Meryl Streep got married in 1978 and has a son and three daughters. 1978年梅丽尔斯特里普结婚并生育了一个儿子三个女儿。

Quiz

(1) His uncle ____________until he was forty.

A. didn’t marry B. married C. was marrying D. would marry

(2) His sister _______ an American for 5 years.

A. has married B. has married to C. has got married to D. has been married to

Rules

marry vt &vi.嫁,娶;结婚。get married 在意义上和be married差不多,但是句中有表示一段时间的时间状语时,只能用 be married,而不能用get married。例如:

She married him for love. 她因爱情而与他结婚。

The old man wanted to marry his daughter to an old rich man. 那个老头想把他女儿嫁给一个有钱的老头。

The scientist didn’t marry until 35. 那位科学家35岁才结婚。

A priest’s job is to marry couples. 牧师的工作是主持夫妻的婚礼。

My uncle has been married for 10 years. 我叔叔结婚10年了。

When did they get married? 他们什么时候结婚的?

4. In the beginning he took many small jobs to make money. 起初,为了挣钱,他做了许多小工。

Quiz

(1) _________, some of us took no interest in it.

A. At the beginning B. In the beginning C. In the beginning of D. At the beginning of

(2) _________ the beginning of the class, the teacher usually looked around the classroom.

A. In B. With C. At D. On

Rules

in the beginning 起初,首先。注意这个短语与at the beginning of sth(在…开始的时候)的区别。起反义短语分别为in the end 和at the end of sth. 例如:

In his war films, he has shown that love and peace will win over war in the end.

5. In 1959 Spieldberg won a prize for a short film which he made when he was thirteen years old. 1959年,斯皮尔伯格13岁拍的短片得了奖。

Quiz

-He seldom _________you in the game, did he?

-No, he didn’t.

A. beat B. defeat C. lost D. won

Rules

win“获胜;赢;赢得,获得”。宾语通常是a game, a war, a prize之类的名词。注意beat, defeat意思是“击败,战胜”后面跟人,单位或集体之类的名词作宾语。例如:

Who won the race? Tom won but John came second. 比赛谁赢了?汤母夺得冠军,约翰获得亚军。

He won a prize. 他得了奖。

to win at cards 打牌赢了

win the day 成功;胜利

win over(= win round) 争取过来;拉过来

She is against the idea, but I’m sure I can win her over. 她反对这个意见,但我准能说服她改变主意。

win through(= win out)(排除万难)取胜,终于成功

We are faced with a lot of problems but we’ll win through in the end. 我们面临许多困难,但终将成功。

6. This was the moment when Spieldberg’s career really took off. 这就是斯皮尔伯格事业腾飞的契机。

Quiz

(1) I still remember the day _______ she first wore the pink dress.

A. that B. which C. when D. as

(2) The days ________ we spent together at the university was unforgettable.

A. when B. that C. on which D. in which

(3) Yao Min’s career really _________ when he became a NBA player.

A . took up B. took on C. took down D. took off

Rules

1)when 在这个句子中是关系副词,引导定语从句,修饰先行词moment.

2)take off 成功,成名;起飞;脱掉;匆忙离去

This book has really taken off. 这本书极受欢迎。

Sales of home computers have taken off in recent years. 近几年家庭电脑的销售上升很快。

The plane didn’t take off because of the heavy fog. 因为浓雾飞机没有起飞。

You’d better take off your overcoat. 你最好把大衣脱掉。

When he saw the police coming he took off in the opposite direction. 他一看到警察来了,转身就溜了。

7. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the sharks. 许多人看过电影后想起白鲨吃人的情景就不敢到海里游泳了。

Quiz

He is ____________ his job, so he works hard all the time.

A. afraid that lose B. afraid to lose C. afraid of being lost D. afraid of losing  

Rules

1) be afraid to do sth. 畏惧,害怕

She is afraid to go out alone at night.

她怕夜晚一个人出去。

Don’t be afraid to ask for help if you need it. 如果需要帮忙的话,尽管说出来。

be afraid of sth /sb 畏惧,害怕

She is afraid of mice. 她害怕老鼠。

There is nothing to be afraid of. 没有什么可害怕的。

be afraid of doing sth /that 担忧,忧虑 ,恐怕

She is afraid of waking up the baby. = She is afraid that she might wake up the baby. 她担心把婴儿吵醒了。

He is afraid of losing customers. 他怕失去顾客。

I’m afraid (that…) 用以礼貌地表达可能令人不愉快的信息

I’m afraid we can’t come. 很抱歉,我们不能来。

I can’t help you, I’m afraid. 我帮不了你的忙,对不起。

“Have we missed the train?” “I’m afraid so.” “我们误了火车了吗?”“很遗憾,是误了。”

“Have you any milk?” “I’m afraid not.” “你有牛奶吗?”“对不起,没有。”

2) remember: 记着,记住;回想起

I can’t remember his name. 我想不起他的名字了。

Do you remember where we first met? 你记得我们第一次见面的地方吗?

I remember being taken to the zoo when I was a child. 我记得小时候被带去动物园。

Remember to hand in the exercise-book in time. 记住按时交练习本。

I often remember the days when I began to learn English. 我常想起才开始学英语的日子。

remember oneself 约束自己的言行

remember sb to sb 代某人向他人问候

He asked me to remember him to you. 他叫我代他向你问好。

3)in which 介词加关系代词:在某些定语从句中,关系代词需要和适当的介词一起构成从句的状语。在运用这一语言现象时,注意使用恰当的介词。基本方法是观察先行词与从句的关系。例如

He made a telescope through which he could observe the space. 他做了一个可以观察太空的望远镜。

The speed at which the car ran was really very high. 汽车开的速度真的很快。

The bank along which we were walking was lined with green trees. 我们散步的河岸绿树成行。

8. When the park is hit by a storm, things start going wrong. 公园遭遇暴风雨后,便出了大乱子。

Quiz

A terrible flood _______ this area last year.

A. hit B. beat C. struck D. attacked

Rules

1) hit: 侵袭,袭击,使……受到重创;打击,击中;碰撞。例如:

The flood hit the village last year. 去年洪水侵袭了这个村庄。

The farmers were hit hard by the drought. 旱灾让农民受到严重打击。

Don’t hit the child on the head. 别打孩子的头。

He hit a nail with a hammer. 他用锤子钉钉子。

She hit her head on the wall. 她把头撞在墙上。

All of a sudden she hit on a good idea. 她突然想出一个好主意。

2)go wrong 出问题;出故障;犯错误。go在这里为系动词,后面接形容词充当表语,类似的用法有go bad, go angry, go mad, go hungry等,例如

Something has gone wrong with the machine.机器有毛病了。

The experiment went wrong. 实验出问题了。

Have you seen where you went wrong? 你知道错在哪儿了吗?

What can we do to make sure that no one in the world goes hungry? 为了确保世界上没有人挨饿,我们可以做些什么呢?

She went pale at the news. 听到这个消息,她脸色苍白。

When she heard her son was killed by a car, she went mad. 当她得知儿子被车压死时,她疯掉了。

He went red with anger when he heard the news. 听到这个消息后,他气得脸都红了。

9. After these highly successful films Spieldberg made several follow-ups of Jaws and Jurrasic Park. 斯皮尔伯格执导的这些影片大获成功后, 便拍了几个《大白鲨》和《侏罗纪公园》的续集。

Quiz

The program that they carried out proved to be ________ successful.

A. highly B. high C. height D. tall

Rules

highly: 高度地,非常地:表示抽象概念。high 作为副词时常表示具体的高度。例如

This method is highly scientific.

The President thought highly of the friendship between the two countries. 总统高度赞扬了两国之间的友谊。

He jumped higher than Tom. 他比汤姆跳得高。

10. Steven Spieldberg said that he owes much of his success and happiness to his wife and children。史蒂文斯皮尔伯格说,他的成功和快乐主要来自妻子和孩子们。

Rules

owe sth to sb = owe sb sth: 把……归功于……; 应感激……; 欠……的钱。例如:

He owes his success to his hard work and good luck. 他把他的成功归功于勤奋和好运气。

We owe our parents a lot. 我们欠父母很多。

I owe him 100 yuan. 我欠他100元钱。

owing to = because of = thanks to 因为,由于。例如:

Owing to the rain the match was put off. 由于下雨,比赛被推迟了。

Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of time. 由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。

11. After that it still took seven years before they finally got married. 他们又过了7年才结婚。

Quiz

(1) They decided to drive the cow away ________ it did more damage.

A. before B. unless C. until D. although

(2) The next moment, _______ she had time to realize what was happening, she was hit over the head.

A. when B. before C. since D. as

(3) She was so interested in the book that she had read it for three hours ________ she realized it.

A. after B. before C. when D. until

(4) We had not gone far _________ we saw a great crowd of people.

A. after B. until C. as soon as D. before

(5) Scientists say it may be five or ten years ________ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.

A. since B. when C. after D. before

Rules

before 是一个很常用的连词,基本含义为“在……之前”,但在不同的上下文中要注意其意义和用法。例如

The train had gone before they got to the station. 他们还没到达车站,火车已经开走了。

The students went out of the classroom before the bell rang. 玲声还没有响,学生们就出教室了。

She arrived before I expected. 我想不到她到得那么早。

He almost knocked me down before he saw me. 他几乎把我撞倒才看到我。

It will be long before we meet again. 我们要过好久才能见面。

12. The couple has seven children in all. 这对夫妇共生养了七个孩子。

Quiz

He can remember more than 5000 English words ____________.

A. after all B. at all C. of all D. in all

Rules

in all: 总共,总计。相当于altogether。例如

There are more than five thousand students in all in that school.

13. I’m honest and I like to have fun.

Quiz

(1) What fun it is to learn English!

A. a B. the C. / D. an

(2) This is not a match. We’re playing chess just for . (上海市2001春)

A. habit B. hobby C. fun D. game

Rules

fun: n. (不可数名词) 娱乐, 玩笑, 嬉笑。例如:

What fun it is to fly a kite on the beach when the weather is fine. 天气好时在海滩上放风筝真好玩。

The little dog's full of fun. 这小狗很顽皮。

Have fun at the party tonight. 今晚的晚会上玩得很开心。

There's no fun in spending the whole evening playing cards. 整个晚上打朴克牌没有意思。

14. 定语从句(2) 关系副词引导的定语从句和介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

Quiz

(1) The parents want to see the girl _________ their son usually goes to the cinema or theatre on weekend.

A. with which B. by whom C. to whom D. with whom

(2) The dictionary _______ he spent 10 years will do good to the world.

A. which B. by which C. in which D. on which

(3) The woman ________ he has married was a doctor.

A. whose B. whom C. to whom D. with whom

(4) I’ll show you a store ________ you may buy all _______ you need.

A. in which, that B. where, which C. which, that D. that, that

(5) This is the very information _________ we can learn what is selling best in the market.

A. that B. which C. from that D. from which

Rules

一、”介词+关系代词”所引导的定语从句

1、正确使用关系代词

做介词宾语的关系代词一般只有which和whom。如先行词是物,关系词用which;如先行词为人,关系词则用whom。例如:

The painting at which I looked was painted by Vincent Van Gogh.

The girl with whom you talked at the meeting is a college student.

2. 介词的选用

(1)根据定语从句中的谓语动词或者形容词来选择。例如:

The man to whom I spoke was a scientist. (speak to)

The little creature in which scientists are interested in is known as ET. (be interested in)

(2)根据先行词来来选择。例如:

The building in which we had the meeting is a library. (in the building)

What is the youngest age at which a person can be employed? (at the age)

(3) 根据定语从句表达的意义来选择。例如:

In front of the house Tom is planting some trees, under which he will be able to sit and read some day.

Air, without which man can’t live, is really important.

3. 介词的位置

介词一般放在关系代词which 或whom 之前, 但也可放在从句中本来的位置,当介词和从句的动词是固定词组时,介词一般放在从句中。但当介词在从句中时,有时可以用关系代词that来代替which 或者whom, 口语中还常常省略关系代词。例如:

二、 关系副词when 和where 引导的定语从句

关系副词when 和where 引导定语从句时,分别在从句中充当时间状语和地点状语。使用时应注意以下几点:

1.when和where代表主句中表示时间和地点的先行词,在从句中充当状语,不能省略。例如:

I can never forget the day when I came to this school.

The soldiers got to a river where there were no boats at all.

2. 一般可以用“介词+which”的形式来代替when 或者where。

I can never forget the day when / on which I came to this school.

The house where / in which he was born is no longer there.

但有时也不宜互换。例如:

For every object there is a distance at which it looks its best. (不宜用where 来代替at which,因为distance 并不是一个确定的地方。)

You may come any time when you are convenient. (when不宜换为at / on /in which等,因为any time 表示的时间概念不明确。)

3.当先行词是表示时间或地点的名词时,要根据关系词在定语中所充当的成分来确定使用关系代词还是关系副词。关系代词在从句中充当主语或者宾语,而关系副词在从句中充当状语。例如:

I can never forget the day which we spent together. (which 是spent的宾语)

I can never forget the day when I came to this school.(when 是came 的状语)

The Great Wall is the last place that Mr. Smith is going to visit before he leaves Beijing. (that 是visit的宾语)

Can you find a place where we can discuss this problem? (where 是discuss的地点状语)

4.when 和where 引导定语从句和状语从句的区别。

when 和where引导定语从句时,有代替先行词的作用,所引导的定语从句具有修饰或者说明先行词的功能,而它们引导状语从句时没有这一含义。例如:

He constantly reminded me of the days when he came to visit me. = When he came to visit me, he constantly reminded me of the days. (时间状语从句)

You can find the pen where you put it. (地点状语从句)

Just Read! (拓展篇)

The Silver Screen

by: Jonathan Huston

On the 15th of June, 1881, Archibald Satterthwaite presented his breakthrough invention, "The Silver Screen", to the assembled crowd of industrialists, wealthy ranchers, politicians, and their wives on the grounds of the newly opened University of Southern California in Los Angeles. His own wife, Lucy, had put on her most flamboyant red dress for the occasion, but was unable to attend, since Archibald had locked her up in the pantry of their estate. Satterthwaite checked the mass of wires flowing from "The Black Box", the heart of his invention, to the tens of thousands of incandescent lamps he had joined together in a vast array behind the screen itself, made of fabulously expensive silver silk he had imported from China. The screen measured thirty-five feet long and twenty feet high and shimmered in the light of the sun setting behind it. Once the last ray of direct natural light had disappeared, Archibald Satterthwaite emerged from behind the screen and addressed the politely clapping audience.

Back in his New York days, Archibald and his twin brother Arnold had experimented obsessively with all manners of arts and natural sciences. While Arnold was a born painter and poet destined for greatness, Archibald was blessed with medical gifts and a tough entrepreneurial spirit. Despite their combined talents, their efforts to gain fame and fortune through beautifully crafted anatomical models and illustrated textbooks quickly failed. By the time Arnold died in a tragic carriage accident in 1873, the brothers were a hair's breadth from broke. Archibald financed his journey to California by selling off their remaining equipment. He arrived in San Francisco on the recently completed Pacific railroad with only a single traveler's trunk, his bride, and a large black box that he kept by his side at all times.

"Gentlemen! Ladies!" Satterthwaite's baritone boomed through the crisp evening air. "You have come here today to witness history in the making. I dedicate this momentous happening to the memory of my beloved brother Arnold, without whom none of what you see today would have been possible. Today, on the third anniversary of Leland Stanford's striking demonstration of the power of serial photography, I will usher you into a grand era of the imagination, a new opportunity that will make even the railroad seem like an amateur's investment. Before you, behold, the Silver Screen!"

Leland Stanford, sitting in the front row as a guest of honor, whispered into the ear of Marion McKinley Bovard, the university president: "This had better be good. When I hired Eadweard Muybridge to take a series of photographs of my galloping horse, I only had to venture as far as my stables."

Satterthwaite moved to the side of the screen where the Black Box stood, then flipped a large switch protruding from its insides.

The audience fell silent. On the Silver Screen, images of remarkable intensity flashed across the screen. Each individual incandescent lamp in the array pulsated at a rate of sixteen per second, varying its luminosity according to the electrical impulses it received through the wires emanating from the Black Box. The incandescent lamps shone onto the Silver Screen from behind; viewed from the front, the individual patterns of light on the screen blurred together, combining into a single image. These flashing pictures, alternating at a rate of sixteen per second, in turn combined in the spectator's brain to create the illusion of almost seamless motion.

The audience first saw a carriage speeding through the streets of Manhattan, the driver's black coat billowing out behind him. The picture of the carriage filled half of the screen; the driver reached ten feet tall above the crowd. As he turned a sharp corner, his hat flew off his head, spinning in the direction of the spectators. A collective gasp went up from the audience.

A deep voice crowd called out from the crowd: "It's a theater!" A nervous voice responded: "But who are the actors? Where are the sets?"

The images were silent, save the hum of the lamps and the bristle of electric current being shut on and off with rapid frequency. The driver continued over a narrow cobblestone alley between tenement buildings. Now that his hat had fallen off, the audience could see his sharp, dark features and the scowl on his face. Suddenly, the perspective shifted: the image of the driver melted into a view of the carriage from the front, barreling toward the spectators.

"It's black magic! The work of the devil!" a young rancher yelled from the audience.

Just before the image of the carriage filled the screen entirely, the perspective shifted again, as if the viewer had been pushed into the path of the carriage. The horses reared, then bolted, and the last image was of hooves crashing down as the screen went dark.

For a full ten seconds, nobody spoke. Then, the wife of a local cattle rancher screamed. This broke the tension, and the crowd first erupted into a roar of nervous laughter, then wild applause. The audience rose from their seats, celebrating the man who had created these astonishing images. Even Leland Stanford nodded with barely contained enthusiasm.

Satterthwaite emerged from behind the Black Box, smiling broadly and with satisfaction. "You have witnessed dreams become manifest, the creation of private images to be shared with the public, the birth of true art!"

Answers to Key points:

1. (1) B (2) A

2. (1) D (2) B (3) B (4) B (5) A

3. (1) A (2) B

4. (1) B (2)

5. A

6. (1) A (2) B (3) D

7. D

8. A

9. A

11. (1) A (2) B (3) B (4) D (5) D

12. D

13. (1) C (2) C

14. (1) D (2) D (3) B (4) A (5) A