Unit1 Getting along with others
1. get long 相处；进展；过活
How are you getting along/on with your work? 你的工作进展得怎么样？
Jack is easy-going and everyone likes to get along with him. 杰克是个随和的人，大家都喜欢和他相处。
How are you getting along these years? 这些年过得怎么样？
get through 做完；通过（考试）；看完，度过，用完；（电话）接通
We’d better get through the things at hand as quickly as possible.
To everyone’s relief，we all get through the maths exam.
I must get through the book before Saturday. 我必须在星期六之前看完这本书。
I tried calling my parents, but I couldn’t get through. 我试着给父母打电话，但是接不通。
Her friends helped her to get through the first awful weeks after Bill died.
归纳：get across 传播，为人理解
get about 走动；（消息等）传开
get away 走开，离开；逃脱
get back 回来，回到；取回，恢复
get down 从….下来，记下
get down to 着手，开始做
get into 卷入，进入
get off 从….下来；动身，出发
get on 登上；（with）与….相处
get out 逃走；（消息的）泄露；出版，发表
get over 从（疾病，痛苦）恢复；克服（困难）
get together 聚集，集合
get up 起立，起床
get rid of 摆脱，干掉；去除
2. admit vt.& vi 准许进入；容纳；容许；承认
Luckily, he was admitted into/to a key university this year. 幸运的是，今年他被一所重点大学录取。
The cinema admits about 3000 audience. 这家电影院可容纳大约3000名观众。
The rescue admits of no delay. 营救工作不容耽搁。
I admit my mistake.
I admit making a mistake.
I admit that I was wrong.
3. keep one’s word（＝keep one’s promise） 遵守诺言
break one’s word （＝break one’s promise）违背诺言
give one’s word 许诺
eat one’s word 认错，收回前言
in a/one word 总之，一句话
in other words 换句话说
in words 用语言
word for/by word 逐字逐句的
leave word 留言
get in a word 插话
have a word with 和….说句话
have (a few) words with 和….说几句话； 和….吵架
Word came that ….. 有消息传来
have/get/receive word that …… 收到….消息
4. forgive （forgave, forgiven）vt. 原谅，宽恕；赦免，免除
She forgave him and never argued with him. 她宽恕了他，以后再也不和他吵架了。
Please forgive him for his rudeness. 请原谅他的粗鲁。
Won’t you forgive me such a small debt? 请你免了我这么小小的一笔债好吗？
Excuse me for getting in a word. 原谅我插话。
pardon “宽恕，赦免”之意，更侧重于免除因犯罪而应付的责任或惩罚之意。普通用法中pardon me 与 excuse me 意义相仿。
When you grow up, you will know the truth and forgive me.
After the revolution all political prisoners were pardoned.
Excuse/forgive me for being late. 请原谅我来晚了。
5. focus vt.& vi. 集中注意力；聚焦；调焦距 n. 中心点；焦点，焦距
She always wants to be the focus of attention. 她老想成为人们关注的焦点。
All eyes were focused on the chairman. 大家的目光都集中在主席身上。
I have a camera with automatic focus. 我有一架自动对焦的照相机。
In class, you’d better focus (your attention) on what the teacher says.
拓展：focus on/upon sth. 集中注意力在….
in focus 焦距对准；清晰的
out of focus 焦距没对准；模糊的
come into focus （某物）轮廓明显、清晰；（问题等）突出
bring….into focus 对好焦距；使变得清晰
6. as a result 结果；因此 （＝as a consequence）
He didn’t study hard. As a result, he failed to pass the exam.
He ate some bad fruits. As a result, he fell ill. 他吃了些坏水果。因此，他病了。
比较：as a result of 由于….的原因；作为…..的结果
result from 因…..而引起 （＝be caused by）
result in 导致；致使 （＝lead to）
He was killed as a result of the car accident. 他因车祸而身亡。
His failure resulted from his carelessness. 他的失败是由于他的粗心造成的。
The workers fear that the company’s reorganization will result in layoffs.
due to/ because of / thanks to/ owing to / as a consequence of
As a result of / Thanks to / Owing to / Because of the bad weather, the sports meeting has to be put off. 由于糟糕的天气，运动会不得不延期。
7. mean 的一词多义
（1）vt. 意欲，打算； 意味着，意思是；对…..当真
What do you mean by saying that? 你那样说是什么意思？
Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 错过火车意味着再等一个小时。
I meant to call on you, but I’m too busy. 我本来要去拜访你的，但是，我太忙了。
I said I would help you, and I meant it. 我说我会帮你的，我是当真的。
The man is very mean with money. 那人对钱很吝啬。
The stepmother is very mean to him. 继母对他很刻薄。
拓展： meaning n. 意思 meaningful adj. 有意义的 meaningless adj. 没意义的
means n. 方法，办法；手段
8. stand vt. & vi. 容忍，忍耐；经受，承担；处于….的状态
The color of the cloth won’t stand washing. 这种布的颜色不耐洗。
When I came in, the door stood open. 我进来时，门是开着的。
She can’t stand being teased in public. 她不能忍受在公共场所被人嘲笑。
拓展：stand out 突出，显眼；引人注目
stand for 代表，代替；象征
stand by 站在一边；支持某人
9. apologize vi. 道歉
apologize to sb. for sth./doing sth. ＝ make an apology to sb. for sth./ doing sth.
I must apologize for giving so much trouble while I am here.
He made an apology to the teacher for his being late. 他因迟到而向老师道歉。
拓展：接受道歉 accept an/one’s apology
10. blame vt.& n. 责备，谴责；过错
They blamed the failure on me. 他们把失败归咎于我。
They blamed the secretary for the delay of the plan. 他们因计划的延误而责怪秘书。
The car driver took the blame for the accident. 小汽车的司机承担了事故的责任。
It is Jack, not I, that should be to blame. 是杰克，而不是我该受责备。
归纳：blame sb. for sth. 因某事而责备某人
blame sth. on/upon sb. 把责任归咎于某人
be to blame 应受责备（不能说 to be blamed）
take the blame for 承担….的责任
11. doubt vt. 怀疑，疑问； n. 怀疑，疑惑
There is no doubt that－clause 毫无疑问
There is no doubt about sth. 毫无疑问
There is some doubt whether-clause 对某事有些疑问
Doubt 作动词用后接宾语从句时，肯定句中用whether或if 引导从句，在否定句和疑问句中用 that
There is no doubt that he will win the prize. 毫无疑问他会获奖。
There is some doubt whether he will come on time. 他是否能准时来还是疑问。
I don’t doubt that he is honest. 我不怀疑他是诚实的。
I doubt whether we have enough food to go. 我怀疑我们是否有足够的食物去维持。
Do you doubt that he will give us a hand? 你怀疑他能否给我们帮助？
拓展：without doubt 无疑地
in doubt （about） 不确定
no doubt （that） 无疑
12. embarrass vt. 使窘迫，使尴尬；使局促不安
What he said made me very embarrassed at once. 他说的立刻使我很尴尬。
He was embarrassed by debts. 债务使他局促不安。
Meeting adults embarrassed the shy child. 预见大人使这个害羞的孩子很窘迫。
拓展： embarrassment n. 困窘；尴尬
embarrassed adj. 难堪的，尴尬的
embarrassing adj. 令人难堪的，使人尴尬的
13. strength n. 力量，力气；实力
拓展：strong adj. 强壮的，坚固的
strengthen v. 加强，巩固
To help you will be outside my power. 帮你将超出我的职权范围。
He is a man full of energy. 他是一个精力充沛的人。
He regained his strength and stood up. 他重新聚力站了起来。
In 1998, he joined the air force. 1998年他加入了空军。
14. persuade vt. 劝说；使相信；说服
At last, I persuaded him to give up smoking. 我终于说服他戒烟了。
How can we persuade them into accepting our views?
Can you persuade him out of the foolish plan? 你能劝他放弃这个愚蠢的计划吗？
She persuaded me of her ability. 她使我相信了她的能力。
The man persuaded the police that he was not guilty. 这个人使警察相信他是无罪的。
try to persuade 劝不一定成功
We tried to persuade him to study hard, but he wouldn’t listen.
15. delay vt.& vi. 耽搁，拖延；推迟
The train was delayed five hours. 火车被延误了五个小时。
After a delay of an hour, we started off again. 耽搁了一个小时之后，我们再次出发了。
It is your own fault to delay sending out these invitations. 延误送出请帖是你自己的错。
The man couldn’t have been saved, if he hadn’t been sent to hospital without delay.
拓展：delay doing sth. 耽搁做某事
without delay 毫不耽搁地；立刻
16. discourage vt. 阻止，劝阻；使灰心，使气馁
拓展： courage n. 勇气
encourage vt. 鼓励
discouraged adj. 泄气的
discourage/ prevent/ stop/ keep/ sb. from doing sth.
Don’t let one failure discourage you, try again.
When you meet with any difficulty in life, don’t be discouraged.
Parents should discourage their children from smoking.
17. suffer vt. 遭受，经历；vi. 受痛苦，受损失，患病（from）
She was suffering from a headache. 她正经受头痛之苦。
The city suffered serious damage from the earthquake.
Be careful, or our work will suffer. 细心一点，否则，我们的工作会受损失。
He cheered up again after suffering defeat. 遭受失败后，他又重新振作起来。
18. absorb vt. 吸收；吸引 （常接液体、声、热、光线、杂质、知识等作宾语）
Dark surfaces absorb more heat from the sun. 深色的物体表面能从太阳吸收更多的热量。
He is so clever that he can absorb the knowledge easily in class.
absorbed adj. 专注的，全神贯注的 （和in搭配）
The boy sat there, absorbed in thought. 那个男孩坐在那里，沉思着。
The old man was absorbed in the book. 老人全神贯注地读这本书。
拓展：be absorbed by 被….吞并；被…..所吸收
absorb one’s attention 吸引某人的注意
1. I must have sounded very proud of myself after the test, saying loudly how easy it was and how I was sure to get a good mark. 考试之后，我的口气听上去想必很是自鸣得意，因为我嚷嚷着说那次考试是多么容易，还说我肯定能取得好成绩。
（1）must have done 表示对过去的事情进行肯定推测，译为“一定已……”
Mary must have some trouble; she keeps crying over there.
His brother must have taken the magazine away. 他弟弟肯定把那本杂志带走了。
He must be at home now, for the light is on. 灯亮着，他一定在家。
He must be sleeping now. 他现在一定在睡觉。
拓展：must 表示肯定推测，而could/may/might 所表示的推测可能性依次递减。
According to the radio, it might/could rain this evening. 根据电台的预报，今晚可能有雨。
He might/may have been punished by his parents yesterday.
What she said can’t be true. 她的话不可能是真的。
Who can it be over there? 那儿的人是谁？
（2） loudly adv. 大声地，含有喧闹、嘈杂之义
aloud adv. 出声地，侧重于让人听见之义，常和read，think，call，cry，speak连用
loud adv. 大声地，声音通常比较悦耳。Adj. 大声的
（3）be sure to do 一定，务必。表示说话人的推测、判断或提醒。
He is sure to succeed. 他一定会成功的。
Be sure to come tomorrow. 明天务必要来。
2. I was so upset that I felt like crying. 我伤心得想哭了。
feel like a. 感到想做，想要 （后接名词、句子、动名词）
Do you feel like a cup of tea? 你想喝杯茶吗？
I don’t feel like going out. 我不想出去。
I feel like he has betrayed us 我觉得他已经背叛我们了
The elephant felt like a snake. 大象摸起来像条蛇。
3. Afterwards, I went to the playground. I was determined to be cheerful, but Hannah sensed something was wrong. 后来，我去了操场。我决定要让自己高兴起来，但汉娜还是感到哪儿有些不对劲。
be determined to do sth. “下决心做某事，决定做某事”
He was determined to join the army and serve the country. 他决定参军报效祖国。
Only a determined man can gain great success. 只有坚定的人才能获得成功。
make up one’s mind(s) to do sth.
do what sb. can to do
do all that sb. can to do sth.
try one’s best to do
go all out to do sth.
4. Yesterday, I saw him talking to another boy, peter, and I cannot help wondering if he wants Peter to be his best friend instead of me. 昨天，我看到他和另外一个叫彼得的男生在说话，我禁不住想，他是不是希望彼得取代我，成为他最要好的朋友。
cannot help doing sth. 忍不住，情不自禁
Hearing the news, he couldn’t help crying out. 听到这个消息，他情不自禁地哭起来。
He just can’t help it. He has to obey orders. 他没用办法，他必须执行命令。
拓展：can’t help （to） do 不能帮忙做某事
can’t help but do sth. 忍不住，不得不
help sb. to do 帮助某人做某事
help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事
help sb. out 帮助某人摆脱困境
help oneself to sth. 随便吃；自取；请便
with one’s help 在某人的帮助之下
be of help ＝ helpful 有用的，有帮助的
5. Football is very important to me, but so is our friendship. 足球对我来说是很重要的，但友谊对我也同样重要。
a. so + be/have/助动词/情态动词 ＋ 主语 表示前面一种肯定的情况也适用于后者，主语和谓语进行了倒装。
I like English, so does my brother. 我喜欢英语，我兄弟也如此。
He can dance well, so can Mary. 他舞跳得不错，玛丽也如此。
b. so + 主语 ＋ be/have/助动词/情态动词 表示说话人对前面的一种情况进行确认，主语和谓语不倒装。（前后句主语是同一人）
“ Tom hopes to be a teacher.” “So he does.” “ 汤姆希望当老师。”“他确有此意。”
--The film is very good. --So it is . 电影真不错。的确是。
c. so it is/was (the same) with sb./sth. 该结构也表示前面的情况也适用于后者，但不同的是，上文可能有两个分句或两个（或以上）既有肯定也有否定的情况。
He likes English but he is not good at it. So it is with Jack. 他喜欢英语但是并不擅长。杰克也如此。
YaoMing was born in Shanghai and has become an image of her. So it is with Liuxiang.
6. I have no doubt he will succeed. Maybe one day he will make it to the Olympics! 我毫不怀疑他会成功。也许有一天他会在奥运会上有出色的表现！
a. I have no doubt that 相当于 There is no doubt that “对……毫不怀疑”
b. make it 意为“规定世间；做成；成功；赶到；”
-- Can we catch the train? -- I hope we can make it.
-- What about Sunday? -- OK, let’s make it.
When he made it to school, the class had begun. 当他赶到学校时，已经上课了。
7. When asked they usually hesitate before responding, “ My best friend? ……”
句中when asked ＝ When they are asked 当状语从句中的主语和主句的主语一致且后有be动词，则主语和be动词可以省略。
When heated, water can be changed into steam. 当水加热时，它会变成水蒸气。
I won’t go to the party unless invited. 除非被邀请，要不然我不去参加这个舞会。
The word can be left out if used a second time. 如果这个词第二次使用，它可以被省略。
8. We have been friends ever since.
ever since a. 作副词，意为“从……之后一直”，和现在完成时连用。
He moved here in 1998 and he’s been here ever since.
I’ve known her ever since she was a child.
1． 常用形式：一般主动式to do,
一般被动式to be done
完成主动式to have done,
完成被动式to have been done
进行式to be doing
1） 主语：To master a foreign language is very important.
2） 表语：My job is to drive them to the company every day.
3） 宾语：Do you want to visit the Great Wall?
Can you give us some advice on what to do next?
4) 宾补：The teacher advised us to have a rest first.
I didn’t notice them come in.
注：see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let等动词后作宾补的动词不定式不带to, 但变为被动语态以后（即不定式作主补时）要带to。
help（帮助）后作宾补的动词不定式可带to，也可不带to， 即help sb.(to)do sth.
Who was the first one to get to the top of the hill yesterday?
He is the man to depend on/to believe in.
6）状语： in order to
A．目的状语：She reads China Daily every day so as to improve her English.
注：in order to 可以位于句首或句中，so as to 不能位于句首。
B．原因状语： I’m glad to see you .
如：He is eager to go to college.
She is sure to come here.
C．结果状语：They lived to see the liberation of their home town.
△在“too…to…”结构中表“太…结果不能”，如：He is too weak to do the work.
注：too之前如果有only, only too 表“非常”、“很”意，此时不定式不再表否定意，而表肯定意。如：They are only too lucky to go abroad for a visit. 他们很幸运去国外访问。
如：She was too happy to meet her old friend in the street.
△在“形容词/副词＋enough＋不定式”结构中表“足以能…”，如：He is strong enough to do the work .
3．复合结构不定式（for sb. to do sth.），可作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。for 本身无意义，sb.可称之为不定式的逻辑主语。例如：I think it necessary for him to go there at once.（复合结构不定式作宾语）
如：It is kind of you to help me .（相当于You are kind to help me .）这类形容词有good, nice, kind, wise, clever, foolish, silly, stupid, careless, impolite（不礼貌）等。right, wrong既可用于for sb. to do sth. 也可用于of sb. to do sth. 例如：It’s right/ wrong for/of him to do the work alone.
4．疑问词＋不定式：可作主语、表语或宾语。如：How to finish the work in time is a problem.（主语）We don’t know when and where to go .（宾语）
5．动词不定式的否定式（not to do sth.），语法功能同不定式肯定式。
They often watch us play table tennis.（与谓语动作同时）
She hopes to go there again.（在谓语动作之后）
It is necessary and important to read English every day.（无时间限制）
The factory to make radios is over there.（无时间限制）
2）完成式：表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。如：I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. /She seems to have been a teacher for many years.
She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in.
例如：What is to be done is unknown. /The bridge to be built there is very long.
一般主动式doing, 一般被动式being done
完成主动式having done,完成被动式having been done
1） 作主语：Seeing is believing. / Talking is easier than doing.
2） 作表语：My hobby is collecting stamps . /His job is washing and cooking.
3） 作宾语：When he came in, we all stopped talking . /He has given up smoking.
4） 作定语：This is her father’s walking stick.
形式：his/him working there, Wang Dong’s/ Wang Dong working there
1） 作主语：Your smoking too much will do harm to your health.（动名词的复合结构在句首作主语时，只能用sb’s的形式，此句中的Your不可改为You。）
2） 作宾语：I don’t like his/him staying with us.
3） 作表语：My joy is his winning the table－tennis game.（his不能改为him）
We were praised for having completed our task ahead of time.
在remember, forget, regret, excuse, apologize等动词之后，某些介词后，或某些习惯用语中，用动名词的一般式就可以表示完成式的概念。例如：
I remember him some money before.
He forgot me that. /After finishing his homework, he
went out for a walk.
例如：The problem is far from being settled.
I still remember being invited（代替having been invited）by a famous artist when I was in Shanghai.
(1)多数情况两者可以互换。例如：Seeing is believing.＝To see is to believe.
Talking is easy and doing is difficult.＝To talk is easy and to do is difficult.
It took him two hours to finish the work.
To be a scientist is his desire（愿望）.
Getting up early is a good habit.
(1) 有些动词跟不定式、动名词作宾语皆可，意义也差不多，主要有：begin, start,
continue, love, prefer等。
(2) 有些动词后只跟不定式作宾语，主要有：wish, hope, expect, demand, refuse,
(3) 有些动词后只能跟动名词作宾语，已学过的这类词有：finish, imagine, insist on, enjoy , escape, consider, can’t help, admit, avoid, mind, miss, practice , put off（延迟）＝delay, suggest, feel like, look forward to, devote…to(doing),be worth.
(4)有些动词后跟不定式、动名词意义有明显差别，主要有：forget, remember, regret, stop, mean, try, want, need, require, go on
A. forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事
forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事
B. remember to do sth. 记住要做某事
remember doing sth.记住做过某事
C. regret to do sth. 遗憾（要）做某事
regret doing sth. 懊悔做了某事
D. stop to do sth. 停下（原事）去做某事
stop doing sth. 停止做某事
E. mean to do sth. 决意／打算做某事
mean doing sth. 意味／表明做某事
F. try to do sth. 努力／设法去做某事
try doing sth. 试图／尝试用某一方法做某事
G. want/need/require to do sth. 要／想做某事
want/need/require dong. 需要／想要被…
H .go on to do sth. 继续做不同的事
go on doing sth. 继续做相同的事
Part A 单项填空：
1. Mary never does any reading in the evening, _____________. (05全国)
A. so does John B. John does too
C. John doesn’t too D. nor does John
2. ――The woman biologist stayed in Africa studying wild animals for 13 years before she returned.
―― Oh, dear! She ____________ a lot of difficulties! (05江苏)
A. may go through B. might go through
C. ought to have gone through D. must have gone through
3. ―― Is Bob still performing?
―― I’m afraid not. He is said _____________ the stage already as he has become an official. (05江苏)
A. to have left B. to leave
C. to have been left D. to be left
4. ―― The boss said we had only three days to finish the work.
―― Don’t worry. We have already ______ two thirds of it. （06四川）
A. got down B. got through C. given in D. given away
5. ―― There is a story here in the paper about a 110-year-old man.
―― My goodness! I can’t imagine ___________ that old. (06 江苏)
A. to be B. to have been C. being D. having been
6. Who is _________ the fire?
A. to blame for starting B. to blame to start
C. to be blamed for starting D. to be blamed to start
7. Next came a horse, swimming bravely, but we were afraid that the ____________ of the current (水流) would prevent its landing anywhere before it became exhausted.(疲惫的)
A. power B. force C. strength D. energy
8. ________ I entered the room he was __________ in his book and didn’t notice me.
A. When; devoted B. While; deep
C. When; absorbed D. While, puzzled
9. The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people ___________ to eat more fruit and vegetables. (04上海)
A. persuade B. will persuade C. be persuaded D. are persuaded
10. There is no doubt ___________ he’s an honest boy, so there is no doubt _______ his honesty.
A. whether; for B. that; of C. what; about D. why; of
Part B 词汇练习：
1. Due to the bad weather, we had to d_______________ the sports meeting.
2. I tried to d______________ him to give up smoking, but I failed.
3. He is hard to deal with because he is as s_____________ as a donkey.
4. I have no d________________ that he will win the first prize.
5. Don’t feel a________________ about her safety.
6. Some students have wrong a____________ towards study.
7. He listened with a p_____________ look on his face because he couldn’t understand it.
8. She is s_____________ from stomachache now.
9. He decided to help me without any h__________________.
10. The products from this company are sold w______________.
Part A 1-5 DDABC 6-10 ACCDB
Part B 1. delay 2. discourage 3. stubborn 4. doubt 5. anxious
6. attitudes 7. puzzled 8. suffering 9. hesitation 10. worldwide