Lady and genlenmen:
Welcome to hunlunbeier grassland! first of all ， i'd like to tell you why people call this bdautiful grassland hulunbeier grassland. there is a moving legend behind it .a long ,long time ago there lived a couple of lovers on the grassland. the girl was a hu lun .the boy was bei er. one day a demon chief called mang gusi abducted hulun and dried up the grassland .the grass withered and yellowed and domestic animals died one after another.in order to save the grassland and hu lun ,beier traved a great distance on foot ,chasing after mang gasi day and night .finally ,he fainted from exhaustion. in his weakened state ,he dreamt that the demon chief had magically turned hu lu,bei er traveled a great distance on foot ,chasing after mang gasi day and night .finally ,he fainted from exhaustion.in his weakened state ,he dreamt that the demon chief had magically turned hu lun into a flower which was and suffering from the windy dream in front of him .he immediately watered the flower and broke the spell .hu lun changed back into her former self .but the demon chief would not give up .he immediately watered the flower and broke the spell .hu lun changed back in to her former self. but the demon chief would not give up .he seized hu lun and took her away again .hu lun racked her brain for a way to escape .she succeeded in getting hold of the magic pearl on the demon chief`s head .on swallowing the pearl hu lun turned into a lake. in the meantime beier had killed all of the other demons ,but failed to find hu lun. heartbroken, bei er jumped in to a lake to kill himself.all of a sudden the earth split open and formed two lakes ,hu lun lake and bei er lake, with the wilson river closely connecting them .later,people living on the grassland named the land hulunbeier grassland in momory of them .
Hulunbeier covers an area of 250.557 square kilometers,with a totel population of 2.66 million. the mongolian natiality is the dominant ethic group, and 35 other nationlities,such as dawoer, ewenke, elunchun, han, manchu, russian, etc. live in harmony with them on the grassland. hunlunbeier is called "green and clean land" because it is relatively free of pollution.
(entering the grassland)
Now we're setting foot on hunlunbeier grassland. all of us have escaped from the city and its clamour and entered a place like a dreamland,look! the grassland looks like asoft, green cerpet, nowyou can enjoy the beautiful scenery in the distance; numeros kinds of wild flowers are in bloom, and wisps of smoke are rising continuously from the yurta scattered on the grassland. when the gentle breeze brushes against the grass, herds of horses and cattle and flock of sheep seem to be drifting from here ro there. what a beautiful picture!
(visiting a yurt)
This is the yurt we saw from the bus just now. look!the host and his family have come out of the to greet us. of couse, this is not an arranged reception, to be sure. but before we enter the yurt, i'dlike to make a brief introduction on the folk costoms here. no matter which yurt you happen to visit, you will finethat on hesring your footsteps the mongolian people will extend a warm welcome outsite the yurt, to do justice to their reputed hospitality. when greeting you, they will put their hands against their chests and bow slightly. with a "how do you do," they invite their guestsin. male guests are invited to sit on the left and female on the right, while host sits in midle. the moment you take your seats, your host will have milk tea and various kinds of milk products pleaced in front of you . after a white, you will most probably probabyly be asked to help yourself to a special course called "shouba lamd." as a way of showing respct to his distinguished guest, your hast will prsent you with a "hada"( a piece of silk used as a greeting gift), together with a cup of lacal wine. mongolians are well known for theirtalent in singing and dancing.their beautiful songs are as entertaining and pleasant as the blue sky, white clouds ,greengrass and fresh flowers ,in folk culture, there is a saying that a feast is not a true feast without the company of songs. every person in the grassland ,man or woman ,old or young ,can sing folk songs. when proposing toasts to their guests, they will show their hospitality by singing folksongs and playing special fiddles. the mongolian people have lived on the vast grassland for a long time, and they have refined their talent for sing and dancing .you can not only please your eyes with their traditional ethnic dancing but also with their mondern ones featuring merry rhythms and vigorous steps.now let`s enter the yurt and take advantage of this opportunity to be guests in a mongolian herdsman`s home.
(stepping out of the yurt)
Under the blue sky and white clouds, you will see a vivid picture of flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, galloping horses and skillful herdsen on horseback brandishing horsewhips. do you want to go for a ride ? if you are skilled at riding ,why not ride a mongolian horse for a while or wander about on camelback?if you are afraid of riding horses or camels,never mind .you still can enjoy the nomandic life by taking a special mongolian vehicle called a "lele".
(briefing on the physique of mongolians)
Now you have had a look at the grassland with your own eyes, but did you noticed that the mongolian girls are graceful,elegant and vigorous, and the young fellow are robust ,heroic and muscular? it is said that this has much to do with their life styles which are connected with horse sports,running and pursuing.further,the important role played by milk tea and milk products in developing their muscles and bones canot be underestimated.
(briefing on the dietary habit of mongolians)
Let`s start with milk tea,the host minces the tea and put it in a kettle to boil it .when the kettle starts boiling with a gurgling sound, the host pours the fresh milk into it .thus the herdsman coming in from a snowstorm will warm up immediately after having such a cup of milk tea. a bowl of milk tea, stir-fried rice ,several piece of a dry milk product and some lamb is regarded as a delicious meal by the ordinary mongolian herdsman. milk products include the skin of boiled milk, milk curd, milk wine ,cheese ,butter and so on .the formal meal may be served with meat and a flour-base product.
While you are here on the grassland ,it will be a great pity if you do not try "shouba lamb"(boil meat which is eaten using a knife and your hands).the lamb is first cut into big slices and then put into boiling water to cook.when it is half done, you cut it into smaller pieces with the mongolian knife and eat it .themongolian people think that half-done meat contains more nutrients.
(briefing on mongolian clothing)
The mongolian robe is unique to this ethnic group .the robe is often matched with a belt and head decorations.with its high collar and long sleeves ,the robe protects people from mosquitoes .the middle part of the robe is made loose for the convenience of riding horses and is long enough to keep the knees warm. you can find all kinds of clothes here today ,but the robe is the cultural heritage of the mongolians and has become a symbol of their national conscience and identity.
(briefing on mongolian yurta)
You can see mongolian yurta here and there on grassland.but do you know the history and structure of the mongolian yurta?according to the historical records of the xiongnu,an ancient ethnic group ,their ancestors lived in the northland long ago .their living quarters were called yurta. in this sense mongolians ,as a ethnic group ,can date to 4,000 years ago .so the mongolian yurta are a symbol of the history of this ethnic group .now let`s talk about the construction of a yurt are a symbol of the history of this ethnic group, now let`s talk about the construction of a yurt. herdsmen first build a round foundation with pieces of stones ,then they set up the structure with wodden wods and beams linked together with wollen or fur ropes,lastly ,they cover the structure with animal skins or felt blankets.the ceiling of the yurt is round .with such a structure, the yurt can withstand snowstorms and heavy rainfalls. the door of the yurt is small and down to the ground .the yurt can be easily moved and this is suitable for nomadic life.this accounts for the reason why the structure of the yurt remains unchanged till today .if the mongolian yurt is seen as the home of the herdsmen, then the "lele"carts can be viewed as their mobile homes. "lele"carts move slowly with big noise. it is hard to tell when the history of "lele"carts began. all the carts are made of birch ,so they will reain in good condition even in wet weather. the wheels of the carts are tall and can easily roll across the uneven roads ,lush bushes ,thick snow and marshes. "lele"carts are indispensable for herdsmen when they move cross snow-covered areas.
(briefing on mongolian festivals)
There are a lot of mogolian festivals held every year on the grassland ,but the most famous one is nadam,the carnival the grassland ."nadam"in the mongolian language means recreation or entertainment .when it comes ,there will be a lot of performances,such as horse racing ,wrestling ,archery and some other special ethnic performances .the nadam fair is a time-honored festival and was known world wide for 700years ,nowadays the nadam fair is often held during the harvest season of the grassland ,either in june or july.during that period ,herdsmen often take the opportunity to sell domestic animals and livestock products and purchasse daily necessilties and livelihood-related goods.acturally ,the herdsmen have few chances to get together on such a vast grassland ,so nadam also plays the role of a big trade fair for them ,when we talk about nadam, we should also talk about offering sacrifice at "aobao"."aobao "in mogolian means a pile of rocks or earth. on the vast and endless grassland ,it is hard to tell directions, so people thought of pilling rocks or earth to mark them ,in its long historical development aobao has become the shrine to offer scrifices to the god of the mountain and the god of the road.during the sacrifice –offering ceremony,people tree branches into the aobao and put pieces of colorful cloth or paper flags with written scripture on the branches there are four types of memorial ceremonies ,namely blood,wine,fire and jade .no matter what type it is ,a lama will be invited to butn incenses ,chant scriptures and pray for the blessing of the people and their livestock .participants will walk around the aobao clockwise three times.after the ceremony ,the herdmen will not only enjoy horse races,wrestling and archery ,but also singing ,dancing and drinking to their heart`s content .around that time, young lovers will probably leave the crowd to be in a world of their own. Dear,distinguished guests,after this tour of this grassland i believe you must have a general idea of how the mongolian pelple live here and may een feel reluctant to leave the beautiful hulunbeier grassland .i belive the grassland and its people enjoyed your visit as much as you did and look forward to your next one .
Ladies and gentlemen,i hope to have another chance to meet you again on this very land ,the hulunbeier grassland .goodbye and good luck.